Revelation 19. The Bride prepares for her marriage. The Bridegroom prepares by slaughtering his enemies with his sword, their flesh a banquet for vultures. Jerusalem is delivered.
The throng or crowd (ochlos) is not identified, and John only hears them, but their words recall those of the ‘great throng’ that emerged from the great tribulation. The salvation that they ascribed to God and the Lamb is manifested in the smoke of Babylon’s burning, and with it his glory and power (15:8). ‘Corrupt’ is the verb phtherein, having a less comprehensive sense than diaphtherein in 11:18. The reason for the judgement on the prostitute is twofold: she corrupted the earth’s inhabitants through her promiscuity, and she brought about the deaths of God’s apostles and prophets. ‘From [or ‘by’, ek] her hand’ appears to govern ‘blood’ rather than ‘avenge’, with ‘shed’ or ‘dripping’ omitted (cf. 15:2). The smoke from her ruination goes up like that of Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen 19:28), examples of ‘eternal fire’, irreversible destruction (Jude 7).
This is the third time that God’s judgements have been declared just and true (15:3, 16:7), and the declaration has to be made, because we do not naturally assent to the destruction or perceive that it is just. It troubled Abraham, who only a few years earlier had rescued the citizens of Sodom from their enemies. “Will you sweep away the place and not spare it for the fifty righteous that are in it? Far be it from you to do such a thing, to kill the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is right?” (Gen 18:22ff) God said he would not destroy the city even if there were only ten righteous in it, and went out of his way to rescue Abraham’s nephew and his family before the fire came down. Although it is difficult to rejoice beforehand, we shall be glad once it has happened.
‘Alleluyah’ occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. It is straight Hebrew, and as such evokes the psalms’ exhortations for all to praise Yah (the older name of Yahweh) – all Israel, all the nations, even all creation. The psalms climax with the cry. But the circumstances are different. The rejoicing is a response to the previous exhortation that all the inhabitants of heaven should rejoice (18:20), and rounds off the revelation of the seven last plagues that began with the similar song at 15:3f. As before, fear of God is commended (Ps 115:11-13). Those who praise him, however, do not fear.
The throng is the numberless multitude at 7:9 plus the 144,000 whose sound was compared to the sound of many waters and loud thunder at 14:2: all the saved. As at 11:17, ‘has reigned’ means ‘has become king’, beginning from the last trumpet. ‘Rejoice’ is frequently combined with ‘exult/be glad’ for emphasis (e.g. Ps 68:3, Isa 61:10, Matt 5:12).
‘Wife’ is gune, ‘woman’. In conjunction with a possessive, it means ‘wife’, just as aner, ‘man’, with the possessive means ‘husband’. ‘Bride’ would be numphe. Hebrew thinks in the same way: wife and husband each belong to the other. So the bride belongs to the Lamb and the Lamb to the bride. Fine linen is especially the cloth of kings, Israel’s high priest and angels, and the cloth used for the Tabernacle. The linen represents the ‘fruit of righteousness’ that faith produces (Heb 12:11) rather than righteousness imputed (Rom 4:3, I Cor 1:30). Though it is granted to her, she puts on the linen herself (cf. Isa 52:1, 61:10), proof that she has ‘put on the new man [anthrωpos] created after the likeness of God’ (Eph 4:24). The ‘fine linen’ of Babylon the Great (18:16) betokens a spurious morality. ‘Acts’ is only implicit in the word dikaiωmata, the plural (a Hebraism, as in Ezek 33:13, I Sam 12:7) converting the abstract idea of righteousness into specific instances of it. In 15:4 the word refers to the righteous acts that God himself has done. This is the extent to which the woman is exalted!
Invitations go out first to the Jews, then to the Gentiles. To receive one is a privilege; for they come from the king, the occasion is one of joy, and admission is free. In the end – at the point when ‘everything is ready’ – few even among the Gentiles accept. Most consider the affairs of their daily lives more important and make their excuses (Luke 14:18-20). Some persecute, even kill, the king’s messengers. In his wrath, God destroys their city by fire. Instead – and note this is after the city is burned – the poor, crippled, blind and lame come into the kingdom, those whom the gospel of grace did not reach and who had nothing in this life. ‘The hope of the poor will not perish forever’ (Ps 9:18, 113:7f). ‘The hungry he filled with good things, the rich he sent away empty.’ ‘The poor among mankind shall rejoice in the Holy One of Israel.’
There were several stages to a Jewish marriage in ancient times. A man who wished to marry went to the woman’s father, agreed agreed a price, and paid it (Gen 34:12). Then the couple entered into a binding covenant with each other, similar to the medieval practice of handfasting. A cup of wine was shared to seal the vows, and the man gave his bride gifts. From that point they were betrothed and legally married, and any dissolution of the relationship required a divorce (Matt 1:19). The groom then returned to his father’s house where he lived and prepared a place for her. When all was ready, he went with his friends to his wife’s house at a time unknown to the bride and either he or a friend acting as forerunner gave a shout to announce his arrival. Usually this happened at night, so that both she and her bridesmaid friends needed to have lamps trimmed and filled with oil. On the man’s return with his bride, the couple consummated the marriage, celebrated for seven days and concluded with a feast.
It is indeed a great mystery. God created Adam on the third day, before vegetation (Gen 2:5) and before the animals (Gen 2:19). On the same day he planted a garden – in Greek, paradeisos – and after putting the man there, he caused to spring up every tree that was good for food, including the tree of life and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. But the man was alone. On the sixth day God brought to him every bird and animal of the field so that he could name them and thereby confirm his dominion over them. Adam saw for himself that none were suitable to be his counterpart. So God put him to sleep. Out of his side he fashioned woman, and brought her to him. Adam was the first human son of God. His awaking prefigured Christ’s resurrection from the tomb in the garden, and the creation of Eve prefigured the birth of the Church. The wound in Christ’s side was like the cut that God made in Adam’s side, for the bride is regenerated by his water and blood. We eat his flesh and drink his blood as a sign that we are part of him. On the eighth day the Father will present the woman, pure and spotless, to his son, who loved her as his own flesh – for so she was – and the two will become one.
Kings in the Ancient Near East planted gardens next to their palaces in imitation of the tree garden planted in Eden. In Persia the royal garden was a pairi-daeza, a walled enclosure. The biblical texts mention several, including the garden enjoyed by the king of Judah (II Ki 21:18, 25:4, Neh 3:15, Est 1:5, Ecc 2:5). Reliefs from Ashurbanipal’s palace at Nineveh depict waterways running through the orchards reminiscent of the river in Eden, and inscriptions have him boasting of animals collected from across the empire, many of which were placed in the gardens. The enclosure symbolised Eden in the midst of uncultured wilderness; the king was the man entrusted by God to look after the garden (Widengren 1951), and the animals corresponded to those brought to the man to see what he would name them. Ritual lion hunts represented the king exercising his dominion over creation. On the occasion of his defeating his enemies, he would hold a banquet in the garden, sit on his throne and drink the fruit of the vines growing in the garden there, while his wife celebrated opposite, and musicians played on their harps and tambourines. On one relief the decapitated head of the king of Elam hangs from a tree. A similar scene is shown on an ivory from Megiddo dating to the reign of Solomon.
The feast that the Lamb lays on for his bride is not only a marriage feast, but a celebration of victory over his enemies. The bread and wine of the eucharist – originally a full meal – present a foretaste of that banquet (Luke 22:16-18), following the wheat harvest on the one hand and the grape harvest on the other. After Abraham’s defeat of the kings of the East, Melchizedek – king of Salem and priest of the Most High – brought out to him bread and wine, blessed him, and blessed God. ‘You have laid before me a table in the sight of my enemies,’ said David. ‘My cup overflows.’
The ‘he’ in ‘he says to me’ – deliberately unspecified – is the angel who has been John’s guide from the beginning, up to now neither seen nor heard. Seeing him at last, John prostrates himself. But the angel objects: only one angel has ever been worthy of worship, and that is the commander of the angelic host (Jos 5:14). His guide serves alongside the human servants who testify. ‘The testimony of Jesus’, like ‘the faith of Jesus’ (14:12), is ambivalent, for it also refers to the testimony he himself bore about the kingdom and God his Father (John 5:31-37). Either way the testimony is the same. To bear that testimony is to be a prophet, for the gospel is a prophetic message.
Unlike the man who appeared on a white horse in chapter 6, the rider is an individual. But the picture is similarly militaristic, and contrasts with the same rider’s entry into Jerusalem two thousand years ago. He is called the Word of God because it is he, the ‘faithful and true’ (also Rev 3:14), who inspired Scripture, who spoke through the prophets, and who appeared as the Word of Yahweh in visions (e.g. Gen 15:1, I Sam 3:21). But the time of salvation has passed, and his name is no longer ‘Yeshua’ (‘salvation’, or ‘Yah saves’); he cannot now be personally known and his name called upon, though his own people will know it (Rev 3:12). He is a man of war and commands the armies of angels (Jos 5:14, Dan 10:13, Matt 25:31) that involve themselves in human struggle behind the scenes (II Ki 6:17, Rev 12:7, contrast Rev 9:16). The weapon in his mouth is the power to strike and kill (Num 22:31, Isa 27:1, 30:27, 34:5f, Rev 2:23). “I kill and I make alive, and there is none that can deliver out of my hand” (Deut 32:39). The Lion of Judah has been roused (Isa 31:4).
The words from Psalm 2 have been quoted twice before (2:27, 12:5). The repetition emphasises that the only-begotten son of God will one day rule the nations in person, with a firm hand. His garment is dipped in blood from treading the winepress already described and about to be described again.
In reverse order, ‘King of kings and Lord of lords’ repeats the Lamb’s title at 17:14. It is written on the part of the body representing strength where the sword was strapped (Ps 45:3). The first man known to have called himself ‘King of kings’ was Tikulti-Ninurta I, who reigned over Mesopotamia in the late 2nd millennium BC. The statement was factual enough, for the kings were chiefly rulers of cities, over which the supreme king ruled as emperor. Later examples include Nebuchadrezzar, head of the Babylonian empire (Ezek 26:7, Dan 2:37), and Artaxerxes, head of the Persian empire (Ezra 7:12). ‘Lord of lords’ was also a common title and was sometimes combined with ‘King of kings’, as in this designation of Tiglath-pileser I, king of Assyria at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC: ‘Tiglath-pileser, strong king, unrivalled king of the universe, king of the four quarters [of the earth], king of all princes, lord of lords, chief herdsman [or shepherd], king of kings.’ The titles could be applied to gods as well as kings, because gods ruled as kings. In I Timothy the double title is applied to God, ‘whom no man has seen or can see.’ Moses called him God of gods and Lord of lords (Deut 10:17) because he proved himself greater than Egypt’s gods and Egypt’s lord.
The people who settled Mesopotamia in prehistoric times found a lush, well-watered land that seemed like the Eden of their traditions. They named its major rivers after the original Tigris and Euphrates, and the upper part of Mesopotamia after the original Assyria. Kingship, they said, had come down to them from heaven, enabling God to rule by proxy. The king was his human son and image – a kind of second Adam. Over time the number of cities grew, each of which had its own god, and each god was assigned a distinctive function in the cosmos and a place in the growing genealogy of gods; but the king of Babylon’s ultimate destiny was to subdue and unite the whole earth. Passing orally from one generation to the next, the tradition about the first world underpinned the new ideology. But it was distorted. In truth, Mesopotamia was not the promised land. Babylon with its artificial mountain was not the city of God. The legitimate King of kings was yet to come.
An angel stands in front of the sun so that the sky is dark (as at 16:10, the same point in time). Like ‘all the nations of the earth’ in Zechariah 12, everyone ‘small and great’ refers to everyone in the nations surrounding Israel. They have laid waste to Israel’s cities and exiled their inhabitants; they have captured the city of the Great King and sent half its inhabitants into exile, enslaved them, killed them (Zech 14). The Devil has assured them of his power by signs and wonders. They are therefore confident that they can defeat the King when he comes.
The sacrifice an act of ritual annihilation (Isa 34:2), as of people pronounced to be anathema (Deut 7:2). It will take place on the mountains of Israel (Ezek 39:17).
Their head is the beast, the offspring of Satan. The offspring of the woman will finally bring the hostility to an end. He will smash their forces like a potter’s vessel.
God will strike Jerusalem’s assailants with a plague, so that their flesh rots and they panic and fight each other (Zech 14:12f, Hag 2:22). Then all the nations will see his glory (Ps 97:6, Isa 40:5, 52:10, Rev 18:1) and the heavens ablaze.
The Euphrates will dry up when the sixth bowl of God’s wrath is poured on the river; the Nile also (Isa 19:5-7, Zech 10:10f). His liberated people will cross its parched bed in the same manner as their forbears crossed the Red Sea when a strong wind made a way for them.
With these words the book of Isaiah ends.