The seven bowls of God’s fury

Revelation 15-16. Wrath is poured out on the world with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm, culminating in the Day of the Lord.


And I saw another sign in heaven, great and wondrous: seven angels with seven plagues – the last, for with them the fury of God is finished.

The first scourges to be designated plagues were the fire, smoke and sulphur released by the sixth trumpet, which were three in number. The seven last plagues bring the total to ten, as in the time leading up to the Exodus. While the trumpets also signal God’s fury, these judgements are worse. Israel will not be delivered from its oppressor until the tenth plague.

And I saw what seemed like a glass sea mingled with fire, and those conquering, from the beast and from its image and from the number of its name, standing on the glass sea holding lyres of God. And they sing the song of Moses, servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying,
“Great and wondrous are your deeds,
Lord God, the Almighty!
Just and true are your ways,
King of the nations!
Who should not fear you, Lord,
and will not glorify your name?
For you alone are sinless;
for all nations will come and worship before you;
for your righteous acts have been manifested.”
The glass sea represents the waters of the deep, by the eruption of which God ended the antediluvian world. It also represents the sea in which the Egyptian army perished but the Israelites passed through unharmed.
Was it not you who dried up the sea,
the waters of the great deep,
who made the depths of the sea a way
for the redeemed to pass over?
And the ransomed of the LORD will return
and come to Zion with jubilation. (Isa 51:10f)

Fire is now involved in the judgement. ‘Conquering from [ek] the beast’ is grammatically clipped, the verb of motion omitted. They conquer because they refuse to bow before the image of the beast or receive his mark, even on pain of death. Therefore the sea is solid to them and, like the 144,000, they are safe in heaven. They remind us of the multitude from every nation standing before the throne (7:15), but these are Jews, and they are dying as martyrs.

The Pentateuch records two songs: one in which Moses celebrated Yahweh’s triumph over Pharaoh (Ex 15) and one in which, just before Israel entered the Promised Land, he foretold the nation’s prosperity, unfaithfulness, exile and final deliverance (Deut 32). The song of triumph is in mind. As God’s servant, and as though he were God himself (Ex 14:31, 7:1), Moses inflicted misery on a country that had made Israel’s life a misery. The Lamb too was God’s servant (Isa 52:13, Mark 10:45). He inflicts judgement on the beast-Pharaoh, and those who have conquered share in his victory, seeing no distinction between him, the Lord, and the Lord Almighty. They sing from a position the other side of death. It is from there they observe God’s judgement of his enemies.

Some of the words come from Jeremiah (Jer 10:1-16), who avers that because Yahweh created heaven and earth it is folly to worship wooden images. The redeemed of Judah rejoice, and amplify their sound with lyres (citharas – also 5:8, 14:2). It is an interim state, for when Christ returns, they will return with him. All the nations will make the journey to Mount Zion and bow the knee before the Almighty (Ps 22:27, 65:2, 86:9, 102:22, Isa 45:23, 66:18, 23, Jer 3:17, 16:19, Zeph 2:11, Zech 14:16).

And after these things I looked, and the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened, and out of the temple came the seven angels with the seven plagues, dressed in pure, bright linen, and with golden sashes around their chests. And one of the four living beings gave to the seven angels seven golden bowls full of the fury of God, who lives for ever and ever. And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God and from his power, and no one could enter the temple until the seven plagues of the seven angels had ended.

The vision connects with the end of chapter 11, where the temple opens to reveal the ark of the covenant and there follow ‘lightning, sounds, thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail’. Like the Tabernacle, the Temple in Jerusalem was the earthly representation of God’s dwelling-place, and it had the same design. Both consisted of a sanctuary partitioned by a curtain or veil. Within the inner sanctuary or tent was ‘the ark of the testimony’ and within the ark were the tablets inscribed with the ten commandments, bearing witness to the covenant. The inner sanctuary, the Holy of Holies, was therefore called the ‘tent of the testimony’. (In Hebrew ‘Tabernacle’ meant ‘dwelling-place’ and ‘tent’ was a separate word; in the New Testament skene was the word for both.) The sanctuary on the outer side of the veil contained the bread and the shining lamps of the menorah, symbolising his daily presence and his light. In due time, the Word ‘became flesh and tabernacled amongst us’ (John 1:14). Christ’s body was the temple of God because it housed his Spirit (John 2:21), and he became the bread and the light. After his ascension those who participated in his body and spirit continued the testimony as they took his word from Jerusalem to the ends of the earth.

Like him (1:13), the angels wear belts of gold (the emphasis in Greek falling on what the belts are made of). Their golden bowls once held the prayers of the saints (5:8); now they hold the wine of God’s wrath. The door of the temple closes as the angels leave, and after the loud voice telling them what to do, silence falls, to complete the hour’s silence begun at the seventh seal. As when Christ was crucified, his eye will not spare; he will show no pity.

‘Fury’ is thumos, a stronger word than orge, wrath or anger. We have emotions because we are made in God’s likeness, and he has emotions. He who made the world is no impassive bystander. But anger is rarely good, and we should not be overcome by it, just as he continually exercises makrothumia, patience (Rom 2:4). He does not will that anyone should perish but that all should repent. Were it not for that patience, we should have died the moment we became acquainted with evil. Judgement is deferred to the end of life and to the end of the age. “I did not come to judge the world, but to save the world” (John 12:48). But ultimately judgement must come.

The wrath of God has a double meaning. First, it refers to the punishment of death (Rom 4:15, 7:9f), because in Adam all die; we are by nature children of disobedience (Eph 5:6) and therefore of wrath (Eph 2:3, John 3:36). ‘All our days pass away under your wrath’ (Ps 90:9). A ruler who imposes the just sentence of death for a crime exacts the wrath of God on his behalf, for the sentence is the same (Rom 13:4); it is the fate of every soul at the resurrection who does not obey the truth but unrighteousness (Rom 2:5-8). Whoever is justified by the blood of Christ will be saved from wrath (Rom 5:9).

Second, it refers to a moment in history when there will be ‘tribulation and distress for every human soul that does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek’. For the Jews, this came to pass in the Jewish-Roman wars of AD 66-70 and 132-135. More than a million lost their lives, including many who had congregated in Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover; the remaining population of Judaea was enslaved and deported (Ezek 5:1-13, Zech 13:8, Luke 21:21-24, 23:28-30; Josephus, Wars of the Jews 6.9.3, Cassius Dio, Roman History 69.12.1-14.3). In their pursuit of national independence the Jews brought these calamities upon themselves. Ultimately, however, they came from God. The Jews had rejected God, so he rejected them, having warned them about the consequences often (Ezek 5:1-13, Zech 13:8, Mal 4:6, Matt 21:32-41).

In advance of the appearing of the Messiah, John the Baptist too warned about the wrath to come (Luke 3:7, 3:17). It would come upon Jews and Gentiles alike. Elsewhere it is described as the time of their ‘visitation’ (Luke 19:44, I Pet 2:12), and Jesus briefed his disciples about both episodes. It is now the turn of the Gentiles. The boils on the skin, the extreme thirst, the intolerable heat anticipate in the land of the living the subsequent fate of the wicked, when they rise from the dead and are thrown into the lake of fire. Those in Israel who have survived the beast’s rule are protected from the sun’s radiation by a canopy of cloud (Isa 4:3-6).

And I heard a loud voice from the temple telling the seven angels, “Go and pour out the seven bowls of the fury of God onto the earth.”

The seven seals, the seven trumpets and the seven bowls all have the same structure, 4 + 2 + 1. So do the days of creation. During the first four days God formed the environments of the earth, during the fifth and sixth he created the animals to live in them, and on the seventh he rested. The trumpets and bowls of wrath describe the undoing of creation – this precious, wonderful world.

7 days of creation 7 seals 7 trumpets 7 bowls of wrath
 1-4 Light, water, land, sun Four horsemen Land, sea, water, sun Land, sea, water, sun
   5 Animals of air and water Persecution Demonic locusts torment Darkness
   6 Animals of the land Day of vengeance Demonic horses kill Armageddon
   7 Sabbath Silence Redemption Destruction

God looks down to see if there are any who seek after him. All have corrupted themselves; all have turned away. With the seeing eye and the hearing ear, with his belly and his genitalia, man enjoys everything that God has given him, but the wealthier he becomes, the greater the sense that he owes it all to himself. The more he understands scientifically about nature, which he freely acknowledges to be wondrous, the less he sees God and the more he believes in his own intellectual power. He shows no gratitude. He shuts him out, refusing to worship him who made the heaven and the land and sea and springs of water, even to acknowledge his existence. The vineyard of Europe is no longer producing fruit.

Although it seems unthinkable that God would destroy what he has made, we have been destroying it ourselves. According to the most realistic projections, by 2100 the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere will have reached three times what it was in 1900. As forests burn and temperatures rise, floods, hurricanes, wildfires, plant and animal extinctions become more frequent and we return to the instability that prevailed before the Pleistocene. By casting fire on the earth, God concentrates into a few months the devastation that was set to happen anyway. Man learns that the creation cannot be taken for granted. One by one the bowls of wrath are poured onto land and sea, the bodies of drinking water, the sun and the air.

So the first went and poured out his bowl onto the earth, and a noxious and evil sore came on the people who had the mark of the beast and worshipped its image.

In the sixth plague of the Exodus, the boils that broke out on the skin were caused by a fine air-borne dust – volcanic ash, to judge from the mimetic heavenward tossing of soot from a furnace (Ex 9:9, 19:18). The pouring of the bowl onto the earth from above likewise indicates a physical cause: possibly an increase in X-ray and ultraviolet radiation arising from the weakening, if not collapse, of the planet’s magnetic shield, with extreme heat exacerbating the effects on the body. The sores are a mark corresponding to the beast’s mark. Given that the bowl is poured out globally, the implication is that people everywhere will have received the mark, not just in the Middle East.

And the second poured out his bowl onto the sea, and it became blood, like a corpse’s, and every living soul died that was in the sea.

The judgement of the second trumpet was restricted to a third of the ocean; now the whole ocean is affected. The blood of dead animals discolours the surface. Again the physical cause is not stated, but one possibility is heat-induced hypoxia is a possibility, an intensification of the ‘marine heatwaves’ that have already become common (Limburg et al. 2020).

And the third poured out his bowl onto the rivers and onto the springs of water, and they became blood.

In the catastrophe of the third trumpet, only a third of the rivers were polluted. The implication is that the judgement has become total. “I make the rivers a desert; their fish stink for lack of water and die of thirst. I clothe the heavens with blackness and make sackcloth their covering” (Isa 50:2f). Reservoirs dry up, and rivers and springs choke with corpses.

And I heard the angel of the waters say, “Righteous are you, who is, and who was, sinless one, for thus you have judged; for they poured out the blood of saints and prophets, and you have given them blood to drink. They are worthy of it.”

And I heard the altar say, “Yes, Lord God the Almighty, true and just are your judgments!”

One angel has authority over sea and land (10:2), another over the fire (14:18), another over the waters. The angel does not address God as ‘he who is to come’ because he has come, with his appearance at the seventh trumpet (11:17).

God’s concept of justice is not fundamentally different from man’s. “As you have done, so shall it be done to you; your recompense shall return on your head” (Obad 15). “By the judgement you judge by, you will be judged, and with the measure you measure with, it will be measured back to you” (Matt 7:2). The beast and his associates polluted the land with the blood of the saints and the 144,000 prophets; in return God gives them blood to drink. Righteousness and justice are interrelated, because right action and the penalty for not acting rightly have to do with following or breaking God’s law; the nouns translate the same word, dikaiosune. From the altar the long-suffering martyrs voice their approval: God at last grants them justice (Luke 18:7). ‘They are worthy’ is an ironical echo of the acclamation of the Lamb in 5:9.

And the fourth poured out his bowl on the sun, and it was given to it to scorch men with fire. They were scorched by the great heat, and they reviled the name of God who had power over these plagues, and did not give him glory by repenting.

The sun is the light of the world. Without it there would be no photosynthesis, no oxygen therefore, no food. It rises on the evil and good alike, and life depends on it. Spiritually, the Son of God is the light, the sun of righteousness that shines on all the world. His eyes are like a flame. Who can look into them?

The fire is part of the torment warned about (14:10f), directed chiefly against those who associate themselves with the beast. If previously only implied (8:7), the sun as it spews forth superhot plasma is now explicitly the source of fire. It is no longer beneficent. The atmosphere heats up, plants are reduced to tinder and wildfires multiply. Men are aware that God is the ultimate cause of their tribulation, but unlike Job, who was also afflicted with ‘evil sores’ despite his innocence, they curse God. It is the only retaliation left to them. They do not give him blessing and honour and glory (5:13). Repentance would have glorified God through being an acknowledgement of his justice and holiness.

And the fifth poured out his bowl on the throne of the beast, and his kingdom became dark. And they gnawed their tongues in pain and reviled the God of heaven because of their pain and their sores, and they did not repent of their deeds.

The light is taken away. Clouds of volcanic smoke and ash envelop the empire, the other part of the torment warned about. Day turns to night (6:12), and even the moon does not shine (Isa 13:10). God seems utterly remote. Men gnaw their blaspheming tongues and go on blaspheming, notwithstanding the pain.

And the sixth poured out his bowl on the great river, the Euphrates. And its water was dried up to prepare the way for the kings from the rising of the sun. And I saw out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet three unclean spirits, like frogs. For they are demonic spirits, performing signs that go out to the kings of the whole world to gather them for battle on the great day of God the Almighty. (“Behold, I am coming like a thief! Blessed is he who is vigilant and keeps his garments, lest he go about naked and be exposed to shame.”) And he gathered them at the place that is called in Hebrew Armageddon.

The scorching heat dries up the Euphrates, the future boundary of Israel, and prepares the way for the kings to take the land, just as the Jordan became dry for Joshua. Evidently earthquakes have destroyed the bridges. As at 7:2, “from the rising of the sun” means “from the east,” but in Greek “of the sun” can be omitted; the point of including it is ironic, for the sky is dark, and it is Christ—associated with the sun at 1:16 and 10:1—who will rise from the east (Matt 24:27) and for whom a way is to be prepared (Isa 40:3). The invisible dragon, the ‘son of destruction’ and the falsely prophesying ‘beast with two horns’ (13:11) are the earthly counterparts of God the Father, his Christ and Christ’s two witnesses.

The great day is the ‘Day of Yahweh’ foreseen by the prophets (e.g. Isa 13:1-16, 24:21-23, Joel 2:31, Zeph 3:8, Mal 4:1, II Pet 3:12), equivalent to the ‘day of vengeance’ – lasting years – which in the 6th century BC God visited upon Egypt, Philistia, Tyre, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Syria, Arabia, Elam and eventually Babylon itself, after the kingdom of Judah was judged (Jer 46-51, Ezek 25-32, Zeph 2). Those countries were the ‘whole world’ at that time (Jer 25:26), hostile to Israel then and hostile now. Presumably their descendants are the ‘whole world’ whose leaders are persuaded by supernatural signs to gather at Armageddon, the hill (Heb. har) just west of Megiddo. Although they congregate there, it is not necessarily where the final battle will take place, and other texts indicate that the battle will be at Jerusalem. Jerusalem of course poses no threat after three years of foreign occupation. Rather, the kings await the imminent arrival of the Messiah himself. They expect to defeat him by force, just as when Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against Jerusalem in the reign of Hezekiah.

“Behold, I am coming like a thief!” recapitulates the warning given to the church at Sardis. The interruption is as unexpected as the event itself. While it is true that the Day will come like a thief (I Thes 5:2, II Pet 3:10), the Lord likens himself to a thief, plundering the house of the strong man. The Day can also refer to the moment when he takes his own. It is either the day of rapture or the subsequent day of wrath (Luke 17:22). “Know this, that if the master of the house had known the time of night when the thief was coming, he would have been vigilant and not let his house be broken into” (Matt 24:42f). Jesus exhorts us to be ready, lest we be stripped bare.

And the seventh poured out his bowl on the air, and a loud voice came from the temple, from the throne, saying, “It is done!” And there occurred lightning, and sounds, and thunder. And there was a great earthquake, such as has never been since man was on the earth, so great was that mighty quake. And the great city split into three parts. The cities of the nations fell, and God remembered Babylon the Great to give her the cup of the wine of the fury of his wrath. Every island fled, and mountains were not to be found. And great hailstones about a hundred pounds weight come down from heaven on mankind. And they reviled God for the plague of the hail, because its plague is very great.

The voice of God breaks the silence in heaven. Lightning, noises and thunder have been going on intermittently since the first trumpet, but with this last bowl, poured on the the troposphere, the solar storms producing these effects intensify. The earth and its works are burned up, in accordance with the ‘wrath of God from heaven’ revealed in the gospel (II Pet 3:10, Rom 1:18). The threshing-floor is purged.

The mention of a particular earthquake straight after ‘thunder’ confirms that all the phenomena are non-symbolic. Earthquakes occur when tension is released between tectonic plates. Most originate near the surface, all are local, and the shallower their origin, the greater the damage. A global earthquake could be triggered only by something deeper, involving movements in the outer core of the planet, the same kind as generate its magnetic field. In the last thirty years the rate at which magnetic north has shifted across the surface has accelerated from 0-15 km to 50-60 km per year, apparently slowing now. The shift is linked to accelerating movements in the core, but exactly what is happening there remains unknown. The earthquake is the same as caused mountains to crumble when the sixth seal was opened.

A scene from the film 2012

The waters roar and foam, mountains and islands sink into the heart of the sea, all the foundations of the earth are shaken (Ps 46, 82:5, 97:4f). Whereas the first ‘great city’ was the tripartite conurbation of Resen, Nineveh and Calah (Gen 10:11, Jon 3:3), now it is global – the cities of Eurasia, Africa and America – and it splits apart.
“As you looked, a stone was cut out by no human hand and struck the image on its feet of iron and clay, and broke them in pieces. Then the iron, the clay, the bronze, the silver and the gold together were broken in pieces and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away so that not a trace of them could be found. And the stone that struck the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.” (Dan 2:34f)

It has happened before, when Berlin, Hamburg, Coventry, Stalingrad, Tokyo, and many other cities were all but obliterated. Men will look at the mountains and every tall building as it collapses and cry, “Fall on us, and hide us from the wrath of God!” (6:16) The heavens also shudder (Joel 3:16, Hag 2:6). The hailstones are meteors, for a hundred pounds weight (lit. talent) is far heavier than any frozen rain pellet, and ice would be incongruous in the midst of fierce heat. The ‘stars’ fall on the earth like unripe figs shaken by the wind.

With that the wrath of God is finished (15:1), as it finally was for Jesus (John 19:30). The words ‘there was a great earthquake’ are the same as in Matthew’s account of the resurrection. The convulsion that brings down Babylon the Great will also bring up Israel’s dead (Ezek 37:7). God will gather his sheep on a day of clouds and thick darkness (Ezek 34:12).

The following chapters (17-19) reveal the character of Babylon the Great and utter a lament for her fall. The army of the beast and his prophet are reduced to carrion, while those attending the marriage of the Lamb feast and rejoice.