The scroll and its seven seals

Revelation chapters 4–6: A vision of heaven’s throne room, the birth pangs of the kingdom of heaven in the 20th century, and the wrath of God in the 21st century.

After the letters to the seven churches John saw one seated on a throne, even God, the Almighty. Around the throne was a rainbow like an emerald in appearance, green being the middle colour of the rainbow and the crystal like the firmament of heaven (Ezek 1:22, 28). “Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool.” The rainbow signified his covenant with every animal, including man, promising that never again would the waters of the deep destroy the earth. Also around him were twenty-four ‘elders’, namely, one supposes, the twelve sons of Israel and the twelve apostles, including John himself (II John 1); they too were on thrones. And before the throne of the Almighty was something like a sea of glass, signifying the primeval deep, with, on each side of the throne, four living beings, resembling a man, an eagle in flight, a young ox and a lion. The animals correspond to those with whom God made the covenant (Gen 9:10), but they have wings, and they are full of eyes, before, behind and within, as if they share in the nature of the all-seeing Creator. As if there is something of God to be seen in earth’s creatures – particularly in the eagle (Ex 19:4), the ox (Matt 11:29) and the lion.

And the living beings (not ‘creatures’) worshipped him, saying:
“Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty,
who was and is and is to come!”
And the twenty-four elders worshipped him, saying:
“Worthy are you, our Lord and God,
to receive glory and honour and power,
for you created all things,
and by your will they existed and were created.”

This is the truth about God. He is holy; he is eternal; all things owe their existence to him; he created them (they did not evolve into existence by themselves); over his creation he is lord; and one day he – God himself – will come to the earth to receive the glory, honour and power due to him as lord. One might even say, to receive them back, seeing that these attributes of kingship ultimately come from God (Dan 2:37f).

And in his right hand was a scroll, with writing on both sides and sealed with seven seals. And an angel cried, “Who is worthy to open the scroll and break its seals?” But no one was worthy. At this John began to weep, sensing that it must be opened, whatever its contents. But he was told not to weep, for the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, had conquered, and he had authority to open its seven seals. What he saw, however, was a lamb, not a lion.

And these are the words with which the living beings and the twenty-four elders worshipped the Lamb:
Worthy are you to take the scroll
and to open its seals,
for you were slain, and by your blood you ransomed us for God
from every tribe and language and people and nation,
and you have made them kings and priests to our God,
and they shall reign on the earth.”

In these words they expressed the truth about the Lamb. The sacrifice of his blood has liberated many people from the kingdom of darkness in every part of the world; he will make them a people of God’s own possession; and as he will reign on earth, so will they. The establishment of the kingdom of God is the reason why the scroll must be opened, for it describes what must take place first (as in Ezek 3:1-4, Rev 10:10f). The voices of numberless myriads of angels affirmed these words. And every creature in all creation said, “To him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honour and glory and might through all the ages!”

And I looked as the Lamb opened one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living beings say with a voice like thunder, “Come!” And I looked, and behold, a white horse. Its rider had a bow, and a crown was given to him, and he came out conquering, and intending to conquer.

Of the four gospel writers John is the only one not to record in his gospel what Jesus revealed concerning the end of the age, in parables and in his final discourse on the Mount of Olives. The visions in Revelation 6-14 – written down by John but revealed by Jesus – make good the omission, setting out not so much a different account of what is yet to come as a complementary one. In their plainer language the synoptic gospels help to interpret the imagery. The key passage is the final discourse, when not long before his death Jesus was asked, “When will these things be, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the close of the age?”

It was a question in two parts: one relating to when the temple would be destroyed, the other to how his followers would know when his return would be imminent. The first was answered in Luke 21:20-24, a passage not found elsewhere, just as a superficially similar warning about a second ‘abomination of desolation’ in the temple precinct occurs only in Matthew and Mark (although there are elements in Luke 17:31). In Matthew and Mark the answer to the first part is that persecution at the hands of the Jews would end in their being held accountable for all the innocent blood shed on earth since Creation, and that this, including, by implication, the destruction of the temple (Matt 24:1-2), would all happen in their lifetimes. Probably the answer is displaced, since in Luke it comes much earlier in the narrative (Luke 11:49-51 compared with Matt 23:34-36). It is difficult to read any further sayings as an answer to the question.

The second part was answered on the Mount of Olives – a significant location, because that is where, at the end of the age, Yahweh himself, the Lord God Almighty, would place his feet on the day he intervened to rescue his people (Zech 14). The things that Jesus said would have to happen first correspond to the events described in Revelation 6, and are foretold in the same order:

Matthew 24,  Luke 21
Revelation 6
 Many will come in my name, saying I am the Christ  1st seal: A rider with a crown, bent on conquest
 Nation will rise against nation  2nd seal: People slay one another
 3rd seal: Staple foods except oil and wine unaffordable
 Famines, earthquakes, disease  4th seal: Killing, famine, disease, beasts
 Followers will be imprisoned and killed  5th seal: People killed for their witness to the gospel
 Signs in the heavens, ‘stars’ falling to the earth  6th seal: Signs in the heavens, ‘stars’ falling to the earth

The first seal is the most difficult to interpret. The rider is a look-alike of the true Christ who rides on a white horse in Rev 19:11. Since his weapon of war is a bow rather than the two-edged sword of God’s word (Heb 4:12, Eph 6:17, Rev 2:12, 19:15), he is a false Christ. But what historical figure corresponds to such a person, if indeed only one person is signified?

One possibility is that the vision refers to certain Popes. Examples go back further, but between 1796 and 1870, when the Papal States were subsumed into the new state of Italy, the papacy conducted no fewer than six military campaigns in an effort to increase their power. The story is told in The Pope’s Soldiers: A Military History of the Modern Vatican by David Alvarez (2011). According to Catholic doctrine, the Pope is the ‘visible head of the Church on earth, acting for and in the place of Christ’, with ‘full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church’. However, Jesus warned, “Many will come in my name, saying ‘I am the Christ,’ and ‘The time is near’.” This suggests false teachers claiming to be incarnations of Christ, which goes further than what any Pope has claimed.

Jesus made no reference to military campaigning, so his warning is less specific than the vision here. He repeats the warning later in his discourse, “If anyone says to you, ‘Look, here is the Christ!’ or ‘There he is!’ do not believe it. For false christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect”. Here the prophecy is most relevant to the Jews (Zech 13:3-5, Mark 13:21), for many will then be expecting their Messiah. He goes into such detail about the future to make clear what must happen first, before his return can be thought imminent. On the one hand he is warning against millenarianism, on the other, against complacency (in the parable about ten virgins). Millenarianism can itself generate false christs and prophets.

The closest match is with a figure in Chinese history, Hong Xiuquan, leader of the Taiping rebellion against the Qing Dynasty. Hong dreamt that he visited Heaven, where he had a family distinct from his earthly family. The father, wearing a black dragon robe, lamented that men were worshiping demons rather than him and presented Hong with a sword and golden seal with which to slay the demons; he would also get help from his celestial older-brother. Influenced by Christian pamphlets, Hong came to believe that he was the second Son of God and brother of Jesus, and began to preach about his vision. Over time he attracted a large following, especially among the peasants. He promised social equality and shared ownership of land, and was joined by two gifted military leaders, Yang Xiuqing and Xiao Chaogui, who would sometimes fall into traces and speak in the name of Jesus and the Father. In 1853 his army, led by Yang, captured Nanjing and renamed it Tianjing, ‘The City of Heaven,’ capital of a ‘Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace’ that covered much of south China. The ensuing civil war was possibly the bloodiest in history, with the number of dead estimated to be 10–20 million. In comparison, all other false Messiahs pale into insignificance, with the exception of Simon bar Kochba, leader of a Jewish revolt against the Romans in AD 132.

It should be noted that Islam also has an expectation of a final conflict between good and evil. In most traditions, the Mahdi is a messianic figure who will arrive with Jesus to defeat Masih ad-Dajjal, the ‘false Messiah’. Throughout history various individuals have claimed to be the Mahdi. Time will disclose who has the truth.

When he opened the second seal, I heard the second living being say, “Come!” And out came another horse, bright red. Its rider was permitted to take peace from the earth, so that people would slay one another, and he was given a great sword.


“Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom.” Since this was a sign that the end was approaching, it implies war on a much larger scale than the conflicts with which Jesus’ listeners would have been familiar, and specifically conflict between states, not civil war. The First and Second World Wars of 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 are an obvious fulfilment. In the first, 9–11 million soldiers died, to say nothing of the wounded or of deaths from famine and disease. In the second, 21–25 million soldiers died; civilian deaths totalled 50–55 million, about half of which were from disease and famine.

When he opened the third seal, I heard the third living being say, “Come!” And I looked, and behold, a black horse. And its rider had a pair of scales in his hand. And I heard what seemed to be a voice in the midst of the four living creatures, saying, “A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius, and do not harm the oil and wine!”

A denarius was typically a day’s wages and would buy around 16 quarts of wheat; barley was about half the price of wheat. Whether because prices had risen or earnings had fallen, basic foodstuffs had become unaffordable. In the context of the Apocalypse famine is implied, on a catastrophic scale.

Although not unique to the 20th century, catastrophic famines do appear to have been more frequent in that period. Those after the First World War include the following (taken from Wikipedia):

 Year  Region  Deaths
 1921-1922  Russia  5 million
 1921-1922  Tatarstan  0.5–2 million
 1928-1930  China  3 million
 1932-1934  USSR, Ukraine  4.5–8 million
 1936  China  5 million

Over time we forget about such horrors, if we were ever aware of them.

The Great Depression began in the United States following the stockmarket crash of 29 October 1929, and soon spread to other countries. Between 1929 and 1933 worldwide gross domestic product fell by some 15%. By comparison, during the recession following the fall of Lehman Brothers in 2008 worldwide GDP fell by less than 1%. While prices fell during the depression, so did real income, and unemployment soared (Crafts & Fearon 2010). Drought in the Great Plains of the United States followed, reducing the land to a dust bowl.

In France – the principal wine producer and consumer at the time – prices were depressed by the United States’ prohibition of alcohol from 1919 to 1933. Perfect weather in 1933 produced the biggest grape crop in French agricultural history. Bumper harvests and increasing cultivation in countries beyond Europe also contributed to a glut. ‘Wine production,’ concluded an official in 1939, ‘is in the process of destroying itself by its own excesses.’ (Roberto Paxton, French Peasant Fascism, 1997; Pinilla & Ayuda 2007). No information is readily available regarding olive oil.

When he opened the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature say, “Come!” And I looked, and behold, a pale horse. And its rider’s name was Death, and Hades followed him. And they were given authority over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by beasts of the earth.
Again, famine on a catastrophic scale is implied, here explicitly associated with war and other scourges. Those after the Second World War include the following (taken from Wikipedia):

 Year  Region  Deaths
 1947  Soviet Union  1–1.5 million
 1959-1961  China  15–43 million
 1967-1970  Biafra
 1968-1972  Sahel  1 million
 1974  Bangladesh  Up to 1.5 million
 1984-1985  Ethiopia  400,000
 1991-1992  Somalia  300,000
 1996  North Korea  600,000
 1998-2000  Ethiopia
 1998-2004  Congo  3.8 million
 2005-2006  Niger

Since 1961 most of the famines have occurred in the ‘fourth of the earth’ that is Africa. Some were associated with war and disease, some with destruction of crops by locusts (included in ‘beasts’?). Famines continue to this day, but international and non-governmental agencies have generally become better at delivering relief.

Thus there are four horses. They evoke the vision given to the prophet Zechariah of four chariots emerging from between two bronze mountains. The first was drawn by red horses, the second by black horses, the third by white horses and the fourth by grizzled horses, heading out to the four winds of heaven. Only two directions (relative to Judah) are specified: the chariot with black horses went to the north country, namely Babylonia, followed by the white, and the chariot with dappled ones went to the south country, Egypt. Their function was to patrol the land and report back. All the countries were at rest, and now – with the return of the Jewish exiles – God’s spirit in the north country was at rest.

Do then the four horsemen of the Apocalypse also have some geographical bearing? As shown in the table below, the correspondence with the horses in Zechariah, while not exact, is perhaps strong enough to suggest that do. The black horse is associated with the north, though not exclusively. The pale horse is associated with the south. The unspecified directions of the white and red horses are confirmed to be east and west respectively.

 White horse China East False Christ, war 1851-1864
 Red horse Europe West First World War 1914-1918
Europe, USA, Russia, Japan Mainly west Second World War 1939-1945
 Black horse USSR North Famines 1921-1933
China East Famines 1928-1936
USA West Economic depression, famine 1929-1940
Russia, Ukraine North Famine 1947
China East Famine 1959-61
 Pale horse Africa South Famine, war, disease 1967 –

Note that the first two horses both herald war, and the second two both herald famine. They are distinguished as much by where they go as by what they portend. The last rider, Death, and Hades following him are expressly said to have authority over ‘a fourth of the earth’.
In the book of Ezekiel (14:21) God refers to war, famine, malignant beasts and pestilence as his four malignant acts of judgement on a land that sins against him. With the coming of the gospel, temporal judgement on an entire nation was superseded by eternal judgement on the individual, if he rejected the gospel (Ezek 18:20, John 3:19, 12:31), so we should be reluctant to characterise any disaster as a sign of God’s displeasure. Nonetheless, the context here is the end of the age, when temporal and eternal judgement both impend (Rev 14:7, 11:18) and, just as before the judgement on pharaonic Egypt, judgement is preceded by a series of warnings. In 2016 the late Mark Pilon commented:
The dramatic loss of Christian faith in Europe is historically unprecedented. While some countries are slightly better off than others, the continent as a whole can no longer be described as a Christian civilization. The causes of this loss of faith are numerous – and somewhat mysterious. The consequences are self-destructive and perilous. …
Perhaps the most surprising aspect of this radical collapse of Christianity is the fact that it increased rather than reversed or slowed down after two major world wars, especially the Second World War, which devastated most European countries. You might have expected just the opposite effect of that most horrific of wars; that having seen and experienced the devastating consequences of the godless ideology that thrust all of Europe into conflict, the tendency would’ve been to turn back to God as the basis of civilization. Yet just the opposite has taken place. Europe is now almost godless.

The warnings have gone unheeded. Yet more extreme expressions of evil and disorder, consequently, are to come.

In the meantime, what is revealed about the future by the breaking of the fifth seal is of a different character.

When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the witness they had borne. They cried out with a loud voice, “Master, holy and true, how long before you judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” And each was given a white robe and told to rest a little longer, until the number of their fellow servants and their brothers should be complete who were to be killed as they themselves had been.

The Spirit says, ‘Bless those who persecute you. Never avenge yourselves, but leave room for wrath, for it is written, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord.” ’ This is hard teaching. Persecution reaches such a pitch that the souls of the martyrs cry out, their patience at an end. The Lamb will fill the hungry with good things and send the rich away empty, and avenge the blood of those killed for attesting that the word of God is true (19:2). It is a voice from the altar before God that instructs the sixth angel with a trumpet, “Release the four angels who are bound at the great river Euphrates.” Their plagues end up killing a third of mankind (9:15).

According to the International Society for Human Rights, 80% of all acts of religious discrimination in the world today are against Christians. The Centre for the Study of Global Christianity estimates that since the birth of the Church over 70 million Christians have been martyred. Over half of these were killed in the 20th century under fascist and communist regimes. Since the 1980s the greatest persecutor has been militant Islam. Christians are killed not so often at the hands of the State – though the death penalty is frequently prescribed for conversion to Christianity – as at the hands of a brother or a father who thinks that killing an apostate is a matter of honour (Luke 12:53), or an incensed mob, or suicide bombers at a church service (John 16:2), or in civil war. Contrasting with the courage of the martyrs is the attitude of those leaders who, seeing what can happen to those who criticise Islam, choose to appease it, lest criticism cause offence. Everywhere worship of the true God is being closed down – in Europe and the United States voluntarily, as congregations decline, in the rest of the world by force, as the pharaohs of this world illegalise churches.

This is where we are at the present time. We are not at the climax of this hatred, for these wars and natural disasters are but ‘the beginning of the birth pangs’:
“Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and kill you, and you will be hated by all nations because of my name. And then many will fall away, and it will be each other they deliver up and hate. Many false prophets will arise and deceive many. And because lawlessness is increased, the love of the many will grow cold. But if you endure to the end, you will be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the world as a testimony to all nations. And then the end will come.”
“For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been from the beginning of the world until now, no, nor ever will be. And if those days had not been cut short, no human being would be saved. But for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short.”

Such is the nature of sin, good news can seem like bad news, and warnings of impending wrath are as hard to hear as they are to deliver.

When he opened the sixth seal, I looked, and behold, there was a great earthquake, and the sun became black as sackcloth, the full moon became like blood, and the stars of heaven fell to the earth as the fig tree sheds its unripe fruit when shaken by a gale. The heaven vanished like a scroll being rolled up, and every mountain and island was moved from its place. And the kings of the earth and the great ones and the generals and the rich and the strong, and everyone, slave and free, hid themselves in the caves and among the rocks of the mountains, calling to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb, for the great day of his wrath has come, and who can stand?”

The ‘great tribulation’ (7:14) is both intensified persecution of the Church and natural disasters coming down from heaven. The events heralded by the seven trumpets in chapters 8 and 9 are omitted, so that we come immediately to the point where the door of salvation is closed (Gen 7:16, Luke 13:25, Matt 24:31). The opening of the seventh seal brings only a period of silence.

The opening of the sixth seal betokens a series of events. (1) An earthquake, coinciding with the darkening of the sun and reddening of the moon, (2) a shower of celestial bodies falling to the earth, followed by darkness, (3) another earthquake, so violent that it flattens mountains, (4) a recognition that God’s wrath will now be visited on the earth.

The first event recalls the 3 hours of darkness, followed by an earthquake, at the time of Jesus’ death and resurrection. Along with the second event, it takes place just before the resurrection of the dead in Christ at the last trumpet. “Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light, and the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. Then will appear in heaven the sign of the Son of Man, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he will send out his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.” (Matt 24:29-31)

In our generation, we understand what it means for ‘stars’ to fall from heaven. In 2005 the United States Congress mandated NASA to detect and track 90% of potentially hazardous near-Earth asteroids down to a diameter of 140 metres. So far, more than 2000 near-Earth asteroids have been detected. In 2018 funds were announced for the construction of two southern-hemisphere observatories to search the 30% of space remaining to be surveyed.

Prophecy, however, speaks not of the humanly predictable approach of one stray asteroid, but of a ‘strong wind’ suddenly dislodging many. ‘The powers of the heavens will be shaken’ (Matt 24:29). A strong wind in outer space could only be a coronal mass ejection, a large bubble of ionised gas ejected from the Sun, such as the one that erupted from the far side of the Sun on 19 July 2012. Had that side been facing the Earth, the resultant shock wave would have disrupted power grids and knocked out satellites.

“We have been lucky that we have not been hit by a really big event,” says Juha-Pekka Luntama, head of the European Space Agency’s space-weather team. “We will be hit eventually, the question is, when?”

These things were foreseen long ago by the prophets Isaiah and Joel, not as chance events but as the judgement of God. No longer sealed, their words were preserved to the present day so that we, on whom the end of the ages has come, might take heed.

Isaiah spoke of the end in various places:
In that day men will cast away
the idols of their silver and of their gold,
which each made for themselves to worship,
to the moles and to the bats,
and will enter the caverns of the rocks
and the clefts of the cliffs,
from fear of the Lord and from the glory of his majesty
when he rises to terrify the earth. …

The windows of heaven are opened,
and the foundations of the earth tremble.
The earth is utterly broken,
the earth is split apart,
the earth is violently shaken.
The earth staggers like a drunkard,
it sways like a hut.
Its transgression lies heavy upon it,
and it falls, and does not rise again.
Then the moon will be confounded and the sun ashamed. …

Draw near to hear, you nations,
and give heed, you peoples!
Let the earth hear, and all that fills it,
the world, and all that comes from it.
For the Lord is enraged against all the nations
and furious against all their host.
He has devoted them to destruction;
he has given them over to slaughter.
Their slain are cast out
and the stench of their corpses rise;
the mountains will dissolve with their blood.
All the host of heaven shall rot away
and the skies roll up like a scroll.
All their host shall fall,
as leaves fall from the vine
and figs from the fig tree. …

A voice cries:
“In the wilderness prepare the way of the Lord;
make straight in the desert a highway for our God.
Every valley will be lifted up,
and every mountain and hill be made low;
the uneven ground will become level,
and the rough places a plain.
And the glory of the Lord will be revealed,
and all flesh see it together.
And Joel in these terms:
And I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth,
blood and fire and columns of smoke.
The sun will be turned to darkness
and the moon to blood,
before the great and terrible day of the Lord. …

Multitudes, multitudes,
in the valley of decision!
For the day of the Lord is near
in the valley of decision.
The sun and the moon are darkened,
and the stars withdraw their shining.
The Lord roars from Zion,
and utters his voice from Jerusalem,
and the heavens and the earth quake.

The culmination of God’s wrath, according to John, is a ‘great earthquake such as there has never been since man was on the earth. … And every island fled away, and no mountains were to be found.’ Likewise through the prophet Haggai God says, ‘Yet once, in a little, I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land.’ Even the heavens will be shaken, as they were when the windows of heaven were opened once before, at the time of the Flood-Cataclysm.

These are not metaphors. Nor will they be events that one observes on a screen in the comfort of one’s living room.