The beginning and end of Christ’s reign on earth

Revelation 20. The Devil is shut away. The saints come to life and reign on earth with Christ. After 1000 years the rest of the dead are raised and judged.

And I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding the key to the abyss and a great chain in his hand. And he seized the dragon, the ancient serpent who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years, and threw him into the abyss, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he should deceive the nations no more until the thousand years were ended. After that he must be released for a little while.

“How can someone enter a strong man’s house and plunder his goods, unless he first binds the strong man? And then he will plunder his house.” (Matt 12:29) In chapter 9 a fallen angel had opened the abyss to release demonic locusts. Another angel now closes the abyss, locking the Devil in and, by implication, locking the demons back in. Having been cast out of heaven (Rev 12:9), the Devil is also for the first time barred from the earth. He has fallen as far as it is possible to fall.

The god of this world has blinded the minds of unbelievers so that the gospel is veiled to them (II Cor 4:3f). With his removal, ‘the veil that is woven over all nations’ will be swallowed up (Isa 25:7). ‘The earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD’ (Isa 11:9).

He deceives believers too, alas. There are three schools of thought as regards the thousand years: a-millennialism, pre-millennialism and post-millennialism. A-millennialism rejects the idea that Christ will reign on earth in his own person, for whatever length of time. This is incompatible with Scripture, as we have noted on several occasions. Pre-millennialism holds that Christ will return at the start of the thousand years. As attested by Papias (c. 120), Justin Martyr (c. 150) and Irenaeus (c. 175), pre-millenialism was the earliest understanding of the Church, and it is the view accepted here. Later theologians turned against it, among them Origen (c. 220, the first to teach ‘the eternal generation of the Son’), Eusebius (c. 300) and Augustine (c. 400). The 4th-century Nicene Creed is a-millennialist, implying that there will be only one resurrection, and says nothing about the kingdom of God except that it will have no end; the 4th-century Apostles’ Creed does not speak of the kingdom of God at all. Post-millennialism holds that Christ reigns through his Church, and Christianity will continue to spread through society until the Church has brought all nations under his rule; only then will he return, and then to judge, not to reign. Naive, and exegetically perverse, the view is contradicted in reality by the world’s increasing hostility to the gospel. In the last days life will be hard, Paul warns (II Tim 3:1). That the Devil continues to be a free agent on earth should be evident. Only when he has gone will the nations cease to deceive themselves and be deceived. Darwinism, Mohammedanism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Marxism: all will be as chaff that swirls from the threshing floor.

Doubt that his reign on earth will last for a thousand years is doubt that Scripture means what it says, for all the talk about symbolic numbers. Jesus’ death and resurrection came exactly 1000 years after Solomon became king of Judah, in 971 BC. David reigned just over 40 years, and was co-regent with Solomon for the last 4 years. He became king of Israel exactly 1000 years after the birth of his forefather Jacob, in 2007 BC. If the thousand years of Christ’s reign is symbolic, it is symbolic, as a true number, of God’s absolute sovereignty over the timing. He prophesies what he brings about, working all things according to the counsel of his will (Isa 46:11, Matt 25:34, Eph 1:11).

With God a thousand years is as a day, Peter notes, and a day as a thousand years (II Pet 3:8, Ps 90:4). Some have taken this to imply that the days of Creation each represent a thousand years of history. But Peter is emphasising God’s patience through time, not making a statement about the age of the Earth, which is certainly older. Nonetheless, since the psalm refers to the Creation and Scripture elsewhere speaks of a future ‘sabbath rest’, it may not be unreasonable to think along these lines. After only a few chapters, the Bible describes God’s work in the new world. The second day of Creation represents that new beginning, when, cleansed by the waters of baptism (I Pet 3:21), the earth re-emerged (Gen 1:9, 8:13). God first intervened in the affairs of man when he divided the earth into nations, languages and territories, in the second half of the 4th millennium.

  Day 1000 yrs Genesis 1 History
  3=1  3rd BC God plants a garden of trees and forms man to look after them. The first civilisations of Mesopotamia, Egypt (Ezek 31), India, China, Crete.
  4=2  2nd BC He makes the Sun, the Moon and the 12 planets. Jacob, Rachel and their 12 children (Gen 37:9)
  5=3  1st BC He creates marine and flying animals. Israel among the nations (Ps 68:30, Dan 7-8, Acts 11:1-18).
  6=4  1st AD He creates land animals, but they are not a suitable bride for man. He forms woman and gives her to him. God calls the Church into being from the side of the last Adam (I Cor 15:45, Eph 5:31f).
  7=5  2nd AD He rests the seventh day. The Church is established in Europe.
  8=6  3rd AD The man and the woman exercise dominion over the animals. Christ and his bride exercise dominion over the nations (Ps 8:6, Heb 2:8).
  9=7 God’s sabbath rest. The new heaven and earth.

Nations and empires are likened in Scripture to trees planted by God. Assyria is described as a cedar of once unequalled height and beauty, yet God brought it down to the same level as the other trees, to drink the waters of Sheol (Ezek 31). God cleared the land of Canaan of its wild plants and transplanted Israel into it, a vine grown from pure seed (Ps 80:8, Jer 2:21), but the vine degenerated until God abandoned it as fuel for the fire (Ezek 15). In due time he planted a new vine (John 15). Jesus also likened God’s kingdom to a mustard tree that, growing from the smallest of seeds, became greater than any other tree. It would even shelter birds – nations – in its branches (Mark 4:32). This came to pass in part. But the prophecy will only be completely fulfilled in the millennium (Ezek 17:22-24).

And I saw thrones, and seated on them those to whom judgement was given: the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus and for the word of God, and those who did not worship the beast or its image and had not received its mark on their forehead or their hand. And they lived and reigned with the Christ for a thousand years. The rest of the dead did not live until the thousand years were ended. This is the first resurrection. Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection! Over these the second death has no authority, but they will be priests of God and of the Christ, and will reign with him for a thousand years.

The first of the two resurrections at the end of the age takes place at the last trumpet.

The soul is the essence of a person. Since God has a perfect memory of who we are and nothing is impossible for him, he is able to recreate us and gives us an incorruptible body. John mentions in particular the souls of those who have been martyred, seen under the altar (6:9), and of those who, whether or not they have been martyred, in the last generation refuse to worship the Devil’s human representative, prostrate themselves before his image or take his mark. They will reign over the nations with Christ (Dan 7:9): literally, not in some pale ‘metaphorical’ sense. Whoever accepts death rather than deny his name will gain far more than he loses. The rest of the dead remain unconscious.

The kingdom of the world becomes the kingdom of the Lord God Almighty. This, in its fullness, is the kingdom of God to which the Church has pointed (Matt 25:34). Drawn from every part of humanity, the saints take up the positions reserved for them by the enthroned elders and serve Christ as his viceroys: blessed (the bliss promised in the beatitudes now realised) and holy (all sin removed). All receive the gift of eternal life (Matt 20:1-16), but each is rewarded according to what he has done (Matt 16:27, II Cor 5:10). “Well done, good and faithful servant,” he will say to some. “You have been faithful over a little; I will set you over much. Enter into the joy of your master.” The ‘judgement’ they are entrusted with is the administration of justice: judging the nations in the sense of governing (Ex 18:22, Luke 19:17, 22:30, Rev 2:26) rather than the judgement of souls. Nothing is said about their own judgement, nor about the book of life, for they all have

The saints inherit the earth (Matt 5:5) and return thither with Christ (Zech 14:5, I Thes 3:13, Jude 14). Paul upbraids the church at Corinth: ‘Do you not know that the saints will judge the world?’ (I Cor 6:2). ‘When Christ is manifested – our life – then you too will be manifested with him in glory’ (Col 3:4). ‘The saints of the Most High will receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever’ (Dan 7:18).

Christ comes back to the Mount of Olives in the same way he departed from it (Acts 1:11). When he sits on the throne of his glory, the survivors from the nations will be made to assemble before him, and he will separate them into two groups (Matt 25:31-46). Though they knew little of him, whoever treated his persecuted followers kindly will also inherit the kingdom and be rewarded; those who cared only for themselves will be cast into ‘the eternal fire prepared for the Devil and his angels’ (Matt 25:41). The angels that had accepted worship from people invoking them in polytheistic religions will join the angels already imprisoned (Isa 24:22, Matt 8:29). In different terms the parable about the weeds describes the same thing.
The harvest is the conclusion of the age, and the reapers are angels. Just as the weeds are gathered and burned up with fire, so it will be at the conclusion of the age. The Son of Man will send his angels, and they will gather out of his kingdom all causes of sin and all who live lawlessly, and throw them into the furnace of the fire. There, there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth. (Matt 13:39-43)

Contour map of ancient JerusalemThe furnace is the lake of fire and sulphur, a smoking lava-filled chasm, formerly the Vale of Hinnom, subsequently called Gehenna. In the 8th century BC Ahaz, king of Judah, offered sacrifices there to the fire-god Molech, even burning his sons as offerings. Molech, whose name meant ‘King’, was ruler of the demonic underworld, the equivalent of Abaddon. Two generations later Manasseh repeated the abomination. Their subjects did the same (II Chr 28:3, 33:6, Isa 57:15, Jer 7:31, Ezek 23:37). After the Jews were exiled the valley became a place where garbage was burnt, along with the corpses of animals and criminals. There were always fires burning somewhere in the valley.

Often misleadingly translated ‘hell’, Gehenna was almost the first thing Jesus taught about. It was a place to avoid at all costs. Into it the unrighteous were to be cast headlong and their bodies and souls destroyed (Matt 5:22-30, 10:28). The sentence would be irrevocable: the maggots that destroyed the body would not die; the fire that destroyed the soul would not be quenched (Matt 3:12, Mark 9:44). He himself would be the one who pronounced sentence (Luke 12:5).

The lake does not exist at the present time. It will be kindled (Isa 30:33), burning to the depths of Sheol (Deut 32:22). The ‘mountains will melt under him and the valleys split open, like wax before the fire’ (Micah 1:4). Christ – ‘whose fire is in Zion and his furnace in Jerusalem’ (Isa 31:9) – will stand on the Mount of Olives as it splits from east to west (Zech 14:4), the fissure destroying the Al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock that occupy the site of the former Temple, west of the Mount of Olives. Whereas the surrounding hills and valleys will be flattened, Mount Zion, on which David built his city, distinct from the hill now called Mount Zion, will rise to become the highest of the mountains (Isa 2:2, 40:4). It is here in the midst of Jerusalem (Zech 8:3) that the king of all the earth will set his throne and temple, with Gehenna bounding it on the south. Week by week, all humanity will worship him, a continual stream.
“And they will go out and look on the dead bodies of the men who rebelled against me. For their worm will not die, their fire will not be quenched.”

When Jesus warned about the horrific finality of Gehenna he was alluding to these words of Isaiah’s.

The lake will also be a place of torment. Justice requires that there be some penalty for the sins that are not forgiven. In the parable about Lazarus, the rich man who wore fine clothes and ate fine food every day found himself in agony, for the fire had penetrated Hades. We ask God, “Forgive us our sins, as we forgive those indebted to us.” If we do not, he will not (Matt 6:15). He will deliver us to torment: not forever, but until the debt of unforgiveness is paid (Matt 18:34). If we have wronged another and not reached a settlement, the debt will have to be paid to the last penny (Matt 5:26). The pastor who neglects to prepare his flock for the Lord’s coming will receive a beating, light or severe depending on how much the neglect was wilful (Luke 12:42-48). Where there is forgiveness, there is neither condemnation nor punishment – that is why the gospel is so important.

‘Eternal’ (aiωnios, lit. ‘age-long’) and ‘for ever and ever’ (eis tous aiωnas tωn aiωnωn, lit. ‘to the ages of the ages’) do not necessarily mean ‘time without end’. Moses provided for a slave in certain circumstances to be bound to his master ‘forever’, not meaning to all eternity but until one of them died (Ex 21:6). Jeremiah warned that a fire would be kindled ‘that will burn forever’, referring to the day when the Babylonians would destroy Jerusalem’s palaces and temple (Jer 15:14, 17:27). Habakkuk spoke of the ‘everlasting mountains’ at the same time as prophesying that they would be scattered and levelled, foreseeing a time when God would shake the nations and the mountains be made low (Hab 3:6). The Lord will reign ‘for ever and ever’ (Rev 11:15) until he has put all his enemies under his feet (I Cor 15:25). Jude spoke of the angels being kept in ‘eternal’ chains (v 6), apparently ‘forever’ (v 13). But they are eternal, age-long, ‘until the judgement of the great day’. Nor was the fire that destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah ‘eternal’ (v 7) – go to the land of Jordan and you won’t see any fire where the cities were (the south-eastern Dead Sea). As an example of what awaits the ungodly, they were turned to ashes (II Pet 2:6). It was the effects of the fire that were perpetual: the cities were never rebuilt.

Everything depends on context. When the context is the everlasting life that comes from God, the meaning is ‘for all eternity’, and we know this because of the assurance that he who accepts salvation will never die (John 11:26). Where the context is torment in the lake of fire, the meaning is not necessarily ‘for all eternity’. Other scriptures categorically state that the final penalty of sin is destruction (Ps 9:5f, Matt 7:13, John 3:16, Phil 3:19, II Thes 1:9, II Pet 2:3). Eventually Death itself will be thrown into the lake, not to be tormented obviously, being a personification, but to be destroyed.

Man’s soul is not immortal. In the beginning, God formed his body from the dust of the ground. After God breathed into his nostrils he became a living soul. Like every animal, he had a dual nature, physical and spiritual, but what gave him life was the breath that came from God. So with every generation: when an infant grows in the womb, it is God who forms the body and endows it with life (Ps 139, Eccl 11:5). Life is given for a time. Although the first man was given the opportunity to become immortal, the serpent deceived Eve, and through her Adam. He internalised evil so that he knew what it was from within; his body knew that it was naked, and now he feared his Maker. He was permanently changed. So he was barred from the tree of life, he grew old and eventually his corrupted spirit was taken away; he returned to the dust. Terrible though the penalty was, it was not vengeful. Had everlasting torment been the consequence, it would have been a penalty that no substitutionary atonement could satisfy, ‘for then he would have had to suffer repeatedly since the foundation of the world’ (Heb 9:26). The justice of God would have been a travesty of justice.

The logical opposite of eternal life is permanent extinction, not eternal life in another place (conceived of, somehow, as a state of being destroyed but never attaining destruction). Death occurs when body and spirit are severed, the one returning to the dust from which it came, the other returning to God (Eccl 12:7, Luke 23:46). That is what the word means. Some theologians draw a distinction between ‘physical death’ and ‘spiritual death’, as if the body could live apart from the spirit, but the Bible knows nothing of the distinction. Pain may be suffered for a time, but ultimately there is only one kind of death: the loss of life.

Revelation speaks of two deaths in the sense that there is an interval between the first and the second, not that they are different in nature. The paradox is that although ‘the payback of sin is death’ and therefore all must die, death is not necessarily the end. Adam did not immediately die, and nor do we. The judgement that now matters is not the judgement that God pronounced in the garden – on the flesh – but the judgement that follows death (Heb 9:27), relating to what we do in the years allotted to us in our state of reprieve. Death does not have to be the final sentence.

That is the point of the gospel. The judgement is brought forward into the here and now (John 3:18f) so that the punishment for sin can be anticipated, before it is too late. The penalty has been paid, so that anyone who repents will not be hurt by the second death (Rev 2:11). Those who reject the offer of eternal life will find the second death merely a confirmation of the first. He will forfeit the life he had on loan.

And when the thousand years are ended, Satan will be released from his prison and go out to deceive the nations at the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them for battle, whose number is like the sand of the sea. And they marched up over the breadth of the earth and surrounded the camp of the saints and the beloved city. And fire came down from heaven and consumed them, and the Devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulphur where both the beast and the false prophet were, and they will be tormented day and night, for ever and ever.

‘When the thousand years are ended’ implies, of course, the number of years specifically stated. Satan is released in order to draw out the last dregs of evil in one last purge. Gog is the leader of the Magog nation (Gen 10:2), the people of the western and eastern steppes prophesied about in Ezekiel (38:1-39:16). He will assemble a great army, comprising central Asians, Persians, Sudanese, Libyans and the peoples around the Black Sea (Meschech, Tubal and Gomer, Gen 10:2). He will attack Israel at a time when the land is restored from war (the war of Zech 14:1-3) and all its people have returned to it (Ezek 38:8). Even though the Great King himself is there and rules with a rod of iron, these nations will conspire to attack the apparently defenceless country and plunder it. They are interested in its silver and gold! But they will be destroyed by a great earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and a hail of stones. It will take seven months to bury the dead. For seven years the people of Israel will use the weapons left behind for firewood.

‘The camp of the saints and the beloved city’ refers to Jerusalem in the midst of the earth (Ezek 38:12). When Israel was in the wilderness, their tents formed a camp at some distance from the Tabernacle (Ex 33:7). By contrast, the Temple lay within the city, and a notional camp area centred on the Temple extended beyond the city’s boundary, so that the red heifer of Numbers 19 could be sacrificed outside the camp area (Heb 9:13, 13:12). ‘Camp’ suggests temporary residence, for there is a sense in which the promised land still lies in the future. Once all enemies have been subdued, there will be a new earth, and that, finally, will be the promised land.

And I saw a great white throne and him who is seated on it, from whose presence the earth and the heaven fled, and no place was found for them. And I saw the dead, the great and the small, standing before the throne of God, and books were opened. And another book was opened, which is of life. And the dead were judged by what was written in the books, according to their works. The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and Death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and they were judged, each according to their works. And Death and Hades were thrown into the lake of fire. This is the second death, the lake of fire. If anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was thrown into the lake of fire.
Paul states (I Cor 15:21-26):
For as by a man came death, also by a man came resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in the Christ will all be made alive. But each in his own order: Christ the first-fruits, then at his arrival those who are of the Christ, then the end, when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father, after he has nullified every rule and every authority and power. For he must reign until he has put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy to be nullified is death.

It will take a thousand years to accomplish full obedience of the peoples. He will reconcile all things to himself (Col 1:19), and he will restore all things (Matt 19:28, Acts 3:21), including the earth itself following its devastation. During that time people will still be born and die. Eventually, sea and land will give up their dead and the old earth will pass away (Job 14:12). The great throne is the throne of God himself. But when the dead come before it, whose voice do they hear, and whose face do they see? They hear and see Jesus Christ. For all judgement has been given to the Son (John 5:22, Acts 10:42, 17:31). He sits on the throne of his father.

The question whether an individual is granted eternal life (here put negatively, ‘thrown into the lake of fire’) is determined according to what he has done. A record has been kept of his life, and it is reviewed. There is also one other book, the book of life (Luke 10:20, Rev 3:5), which humanity has always known about (e.g. Ex 32:32, Dan 12:1). The book is mentioned specifically in relation to the second resurrection. It is not blank, nor is its title changed to ‘the book of death’. The dead ‘stand’ before the throne, restored to their bodies. Some are appointed to eternal life, some not.

It may come as a surprise to learn that at the general resurrection men will be judged according to their works, and that not all will be condemned. But this is the answer to the familiar question, “What about those who have never heard the gospel?”
“… O God, the great one, the mighty one, whose name is Yahweh of hosts, great in counsel and mighty in action, whose eyes are open to all the ways of the sons of Adam, to give to each according to his ways and according to the fruit of his deeds.” (Jer 32:19)
This is not to be read as God condemning all humanity before AD 30 to destruction or everlasting torment.
“Though I say to the righteous that he shall surely live, yet if he trusts in his righteousness and does iniquity, none of his righteous acts shall be remembered, but in the injustice that he has done he shall die. Again, though I say to the wicked, ‘You shall surely die,’ yet if he turns from his sin and does what is just and right, if the wicked restores the pledge, gives back what he has stolen and walks in the statutes of life, not doing iniquity, he shall surely live; he shall not die. None of the sins he has committed shall be remembered against him. (Ezek 33:13-16)
“Then he will answer them, saying, ‘Truly, I say to you, as you did not do it to one of the least of these, you did not do it to me.’ And these will go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into eternal life.” (Matt 25:45f)
“An hour is coming when all who are in the tombs will hear his voice and come out, those who have done good to the resurrection of life, and those who have done bad to the resurrection of judgment” (John 5:29).
[He] will render to each one according to his works: to those who by steadfastly doing good seek glory and honour and immortality, eternal life, but to those who are loyal to party and do not obey the truth but obey unrighteousness, fury and wrath. … For when Gentiles, who do not have the law, do by nature what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law. They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, their conscience supporting its witness, and their thoughts privately accusing or also defending them. (Rom 2:6-15)
And if you call on him as Father who judges impartially according to each one’s work, conduct yourselves with fear during the time of your exile. (I Pet 1:17)
Faith and works are not antithetical. Although it is ‘by grace you have been saved, through faith’ (Eph 2:8), ‘we are created in Christ Jesus for good works, which God prepared beforehand that we should walk in them’ (Eph 2:10). Paul’s commission was to call the Gentiles to ‘repent and turn to God, doing works worthy of repentance’ (Acts 26:20). Although ‘the righteous [man] shall live by his faith’ (Rom 1:17) – be granted eternal life on account of his faith – righteousness and faith go hand in hand (Heb 11). The individual is righteous because he believes that there is a God who is good and rewards those who seek him (Heb 11:6), and he lives by that light now, even though he stumbles (Prov 24:16). God justifies (accepts) him whether or not he knows of the Saviour whose sacrifice enables God to justify him. Abraham’s faith was that God was good and would honour his promise of an heir.
Was not Abraham our father justified by works when he offered up his son Isaac on the altar? Do you see that faith was working along with his works, and faith was completed by the works? The scripture was fulfilled that says, “Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him as righteousness,” and he was called a friend of God. You see that a person is justified by works and not by faith alone. (James 2:21-24)

This was before Christ came into the world, and applied to all who sought to live by the light God gave them. While it is true that in absolute terms ‘no one living is righteous before him’ (Ps 143:2), for ‘all men have sinned and fall short of the glory of God’ (Rom 3:23, 5:12), Psalms and Proverbs abound with references to the righteous. Job knew that he had a Redeemer, and that at the last, in his own flesh, he would see God (Job 19:25-27). Zacchaeus was saved because he met Jesus and repented, even though Jesus had not yet paid for his sins. In the case of righteous Simeon, it was enough simply to see him. Those accounted righteous are made perfect at the resurrection (Heb 12:23).

God says, “The soul that sins shall die,” referring to the soul that persistently does what is wrong, and referring to the second death, not the first (Ezek 18). But he remembers mercy in the midst of wrath, for he knows that we are flesh. When Abraham asked God, “Will you indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked? Shall the Judge of all the earth not do right?” the reply was not that his concept of justice was flawed, or that no one on earth was righteous. God destroyed Sodom because all its population was wicked, except Lot, who was ‘righteous’ (II Pet 2:7f) but far from perfect. On the other hand, he did not destroy every city in the plain, nor the other cities in Canaan, though he would do once their wickedness had come to fruition.

In the Old Testament, God’s saving of a person or family in this life was an indication that he would save them also at the resurrection. What we say and do in this world matters. In times of crisis many in fact were saved, including Rahab the prostitute, Naaman the Syrian and, when Nebuchadrezzar brought judgement on Judah, the daughters of Jonadab and the country’s poorest people (Jer 35:18f, 39:10).

The gospel is good news, because it makes known the truth that God is good, and he has mercy on those who acknowledge their sin and repent. It is only bad news for those who say, “Let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die,” who have heard and rejected the word of life, who are materially rich (for though they have more, they give less), who appear to be godly but shun the Holy Spirit, who are defiled by persistent fornication, homosexual relations, dishonouring of parents, occultism, hatred, jealousy, ingratitude, fits of anger, deceit, blasphemy, thieving, covetousness. It is only bad news for those who live by a moral law of their own making, opposed to God’s law. The charge sheet includes most people in the West. Much is expected of those who have been given much. Some say, “Prove to me that God exists and I will believe,” not understanding that they would not believe even if someone came back from the dead. They are under judgement; it is not for them to make demands. The onus is on them to seek him, not on God to show himself. There has never been an age that had more proof of God.

When Jonah, a man from an obscure town in northern Israel, prophesied to Nineveh that the city would be overthrown, he gave no sign. Yet God considered that his message was sufficient; and indeed the Ninevites repented. So he reversed his decision, and not only for this life. Jesus told his hearers, “The men of Nineveh will rise up at the judgement with this generation and condemn it, for they repented at the preaching of Jonah – and see, something greater than Jonah is here” (Matt 12:41). Even many in Sodom and Gomorrah would receive mercy (Matt 10:15, 11:24; Ezek 16:53).

It is Christ’s death that enables God to judge men according to their works, even though all are guilty. God is ‘compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, … forgiving sin and transgression but unwilling to clear the guilty’ (Ex 34:7) – which would be a contradictory statement, were it not that Christ has paid for our guilt. God does not condemn a soul simply because he was born at the wrong time. Paul told the Athenians, “The times of ignorance God overlooked, but now he commands all men everywhere to repent” (Acts 17:30, Rom 3:25). ‘Everyone who does what is bad hates the light and does not come to the light, lest his works be exposed; whoever does what is true comes to the light, that it may be manifest that his works have been done in God’ (John 3:21). Whoever fears God and does what is right is acceptable to him (Acts 10:35). The crippled, the blind and the lame, and those who care for them, will also inherit. That was the significance of Christ’s healing them. Those who turn their backs on the gospel exclude themselves, whereas those who have no roof above their heads he compels to come in. There are many places at his table, and his house must be filled (Luke 14:23).
Blessed is he whose help is the God of Jacob,
     whose hope is in the LORD his God,
who made heaven and earth,
     the sea, and all that is in them,
who keeps faith forever;
     who executes justice for the oppressed,
     who gives food to the hungry.
The LORD releases the prisoners;
     the LORD opens the eyes of the blind;
     the LORD lifts up those who are bowed down.
The LORD loves the righteous;
     the LORD watches over the foreigners.
The widow and the orphan he embraces,
     but the way of the wicked he makes crooked. (Ps 146)

The prisoners are the dead. Who cannot see that this is a psalm about the resurrection? Lazarus was a sinner, like everyone else. But God took no notice of his sin. His life was blighted by hunger and disease, but after death he was comforted. Saif ul-Malook is a Muslim lawyer who risks death by defending Christians in Pakistan accused of blasphemy. God will receive him too.