The fall of Babylon the Great

Revelation chapter 18. The fulfilment of prophecies concerning ancient Babylon and Tyre gives grounds for believing that the days of modern civilisation are also numbered.

After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven, having great authority, and the earth was illumined by his glory. And he cried with a loud voice, “Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great! She has become a dwelling place for demons, and a haunt for every unclean spirit, and a haunt for every unclean and hated bird. For all the nations have drunk from the wine of her raging fornication, and the kings of the earth have fornicated with her, and the merchants of the earth have grown rich from the power of her luxury.”

“Fallen, fallen is Babylon the great!” echoes Isaiah’s pronouncement on ancient Babylon (Isa 21:9). That demons and unclean birds (Lev 11) live in her seems to be her condition before judgement (cf. Rev 9:20) rather than the consequence of judgement, though it is possible to read otherwise. Ancient Edom and Babylonia are so depicted after their judgement (Isa 34:10ff, Jer 51:43).

Isaiah’s prophecies date to the second half of the 8th century BC, when, apart from eleven years of independence under Merodach-Baladan (Marduk-apla-idinna, 721-710 BC), Babylonia was a vassal of the Assyrian Empire. His prediction that Judah and its royal family would one day be judged by deportation to Babylon (Isa 39:6f, 47:6), not Kalhu, Assyria’s capital, and that God thereafter bring up the Medes to avenge himself on the city could not have been based on contemporary observation. Isaiah predicted Babylon’s fall on three separate occasions: in chapters 13 and 14, in chapter 21 and in chapters 46 and 47. God expressly emphasises that only he has the power to foresee such things (46:9-11):
For I am God, and there is no other;
     I am God, and there is none like me,
declaring the end from the beginning
     and from ancient times things not yet done,
saying, ‘My counsel shall stand,
     and I will do all my pleasure,’
calling a bird of prey from the east,
     the man of my counsel from a far country.
I have spoken, I will bring it to pass.

The ‘bird of prey from the east’ was Cyrus (mentioned by name in Isa 44:28), commander of the Median army that conquered Babylon.

The prophecies are frequently stamped with the declaration that they issue from him who created heaven and earth (e.g. 40:28, 45:12, 48:13). God knows the end of history from the beginning, and the prediction of the fall of Babylon more than 150 years before it happened is given as proof of this. It was recorded for our sakes as much as for Judah’s, in order that we might be sure that the fall of Babylon the Great will likewise happen.

Some of the things predicted lay in the then near future, some much nearer our own time. The first time he mentions the city, Isaiah dovetails the fall of ancient Babylon with that of its latter-day counterpart, so that discerning which parts of the prophecy refer to the former (Isa 13:1-8, 14-22, 14:3-23) and which to the latter (13:9-13) is not straightforward. Moreover, although John’s prophecy refers entirely to the latter, it contains very little that is new. His depiction draws almost entirely on the Old Testament’s depiction of God’s judgement of the ancient world, in order to make the point that the spiritual logic is much the same. History will repeat itself. The people of God will accommodate themselves to an alien culture and choose to ignore the fact that the culture stands condemned. They must dissociate themselves or suffer the same fate.

The centre of ancient Babylon, with the Ishtar Gate foreground left and the ziggurat in the distance

This is not to say that the cases are identical. Ancient Babylon was guilty primarily because of her demonic and idolatrous religion, epitomised by her ziggurat. As in other Mesopotamian cities, a ziggurat was a terraced brick-built mountain with a stairway. At the top a temple represented the celestial dwelling of the city’s god, namely Bel, or Marduk. The terrace half-way up represented the earth, and down from that level subsidiary stairways led to the underworld. With the aid of invocations and magic the king hoped that at the summit he would gain access to the powers of heaven, so that he might rule the people with power on Marduk’s behalf (Isa 14:12-14, Jer 51:53). The wine that Babylon made the nations drink (Jer 51:7) was the wine of idolatry, of angel and demon worship (Jer 50:38).

By contrast, the principal charge against Babylon the Great is that she is sexually promiscuous and a lover of fine living, and she has persuaded the rest of the world to adopt the same materialist world-view. Her affluence exerts great power, and the world’s business tycoons grow rich by it. Like ancient Babylon, she has blood on her hands.

Wine serves as a metaphor for both her passionate lust and God’s passionate anger. (It is perhaps significant that Europe is by far the world’s greatest producer, exporter and consumer of wine.) Having drunk her fill from her own cup, she will drink from his, as will all worshippers of the beast (14:10). The same doom was visited on the ancient world. After drinking from the stupefying wine of Babylon’s idolatry (Jer 51:7), the nations had to drink to stupefaction the wine of God’s wrath; even Babylon herself had to (Jer 25:15-26). ‘All the kingdoms of the earth on the face of the ground’ in that context were the kingdoms of the Middle East.

And I heard another voice from heaven saying,
“Come out of her, my people,
      lest you take part in her sins
      and you share in her plagues;
for her sins are heaped up to heaven,
      and God has remembered her iniquities.
Pay her back as she herself has paid back,
      and render double for her deeds;
      in the cup she has mixed mix double for her.
As she glorified herself and lived in luxury,
      in like measure give her torment and mourning,
since in her heart she says,
      ‘I sit as queen, no widow am I,
      and mourning I shall never see.’
For this reason her plagues will come in a single day,
      death and mourning and famine,
and she will be burned up with fire;
      for mighty is the Lord God who has judged her.”

The prophecy takes a step back, to before the city’s downfall. The call to come out of her is similar to that in Jeremiah (51:45), through whom God tells those who would one day live as exiles in Babylon to flee from her midst. The midst of the city was where the temple, ziggurat and royal palace were located and where the attack would be concentrated (51:47). Her judgement has reached up to heaven (51:9), and God will repay (51:24, 56). Through Isaiah he declares, “I am God, and there is no other” (Isa 46:9). She, on the other hand, thinks to herself, “I am, and there is no one else; I shall not sit a widow or know the loss of children” (47:8).

History records who was right. After a long and frustrating siege, in 539 BC Cyrus dried up the river that ran through the city (Herodotus I, 191, cf. Isa 44:27) and thereby enabled his soldiers to enter it while its leaders were drunk. Supposedly impregnable Babylon was captured with ease (Herodotus I, 191, cf. Jer 51:39, Dan 5:4ff).

So God appeals to his beloved Church to come out of the modern equivalent of Babylon. How many even know that this prophecy is in the Bible? How many accept that God has the power as well as the will to bring this comfortable world to an end? How many understand that his analysis of Jerusalem’s apostasy in the book of Jeremiah applies equally to today’s Church, that he still demands faithfulness of his people?

Babylon the Great is to be paid back ‘as she herself has paid back’. The implication is that when she has retaliated, she has done so disproportionately – as Lamech boasted he had done (Gen 4:23f). One example is the havoc wreaked on Iraq in response to the attack on the World Trade Center. To whom much has been given, of them will much be required. When David sinned by fornicating with another man’s wife, God said to him, “I will take your wives from before your eyes and give them to your neighbour, and he will lie with your wives in broad daylight. For you did it secretly, but I will do this thing before all Israel.” In his judgement God took into account David’s circumstances and how much he already knew of God and repaid him double. So it will be in the final judgement.

And the kings of the earth, who fornicated and lived in luxury with her, will weep and wail over her when they see the smoke of her burning. They will stand far back for fear of her torment, saying, “Alas, alas, the great city, Babylon the mighty city! For in a single hour your judgment has come.”
And the merchants of the earth weep and mourn for her, since no one buys their cargo anymore: cargo of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and every scented wood, and every article of ivory, and every article of costly wood and bronze and iron and marble, their cinnamon, and cardamom, and incense, and myrrh, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and cattle, and sheep, cargo of horses, and carriages, and bodies and souls of men.
And the fruits which your soul desired have gone from you, and all the sumptuousness and the splendour have perished from you, and will be found no more.
The merchants who got rich from her will stand far back for fear of her torment, weeping and mourning, saying, “Alas, alas, the great city that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and adorned with gold, and jewels, and pearls! For in a single hour all this wealth has been laid waste.”
And all shipmasters and seafarers and mariners and all who traded on the sea stood far back and, seeing the smoke of her burning, cried out, “What compared with the great city?”
And they threw dust on their heads and, weeping and mourning, cried out, “Alas, alas, the great city, in which all who had ships at sea grew rich by her wealth! For in a single hour she has been laid waste. Rejoice over her, O heaven, and you saints, and apostles, and prophets, for God has given judgment for you against her!”

The future tense becomes past as the pronouncement is fulfilled. ‘Kings of the earth’ – first mentioned at 1:5 – is a frequent term in the Old Testament, in a world where kingdoms consisted of city- as well nation-states. In this section it is one of the many echoes of Ezekiel’s lament over the future fall of Tyre (Ezek 26-28). Tyre was the principal city-state of Phoenicia and a thriving centre of commerce. By its maritime trade it had made itself and the kings of the earth rich (27:33), saying to itself, “I am a god; I sit in the seat of the gods, in the heart of the seas.” Its main city was a fortified island off the coast of Lebanon, linked to a sister city, Old Tyre, which was located on the mainland a few kilometres to the south. Nebuchadrezzar conquered Old Tyre soon after his conquest of Jerusalem in 586 BC but failed to capture its offshore stronghold, despite a 13-year siege (a failure referred to in Ezek 29:18). That part of Tyre was not captured until Alexander the Great used the rubble from the old city to reach the island with a causeway. His army constituted the final wave of the ‘many nations’ that were to hurl themselves against the island.

Immediately before his mini apocalypse, Isaiah too foretold the destruction of Tyre. She was ‘the merchant of the nations’, a prostitute situated ‘on many waters’ (Isa 23:3, 15f). She was ‘the bestower of crowns, whose merchants were princes, whose traders were the honoured of the earth’. Nonetheless, the Chaldaeans – subjects of Assyria at the time of the prophecy – would strip her palaces bare and make her a ruin.

Today, we don’t have ziggurats, we have skyscrapers, which are also monuments to what we worship. The fall of the World Trade Center in 2001 at the hands of Al-Qaeda, a forerunner of the ten horns that will hate the prostitute, was therefore a sign.
Collapse of the World Trade CenterFor the Lord of hosts has a day
      against all that is proud and lofty,
against all that is lifted up,
      and it shall be brought low …
against all the lofty mountains
      and against all the uplifted hills,
against every high tower,
      and against every fortified wall. …
And people shall enter the caves of the rocks
      and the holes of the ground,
from before the fear of the Lord
      and from the splendour of his majesty,
      when he rises to make the earth tremble.
In that day men will cast away
      the idols of their silver and their gold,
which they made for themselves to worship.

Because countries are now interdependent, we speak of ‘the global economy’. Modern economies depend on continually stimulating consumers to covet more and buy more, storing or throwing away what they bought the year before. If an economy is not growing, the state borrows more and urges its citizens to borrow more in order to stimulate growth. But a person’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions. Covetousness is a form of idolatry, and along with fornication, impurity, evil desire, is the reason why wrath is coming upon the world (Col 3:5f). Idols have no life in them. We are to find our value in God, not in things.

‘Torment’ describes the physical and mental anguish brought about by the destruction; it has nothing to do with ‘hell’. The list of goods, mostly luxury items, is an abbreviation of Ezekiel’s list, which specifies additionally the many countries that supplied them. The list ends with the bodies and souls of human beings: slaves are trafficked as well as animals. By implication, all the wealth so represented is at the expense of human suffering and exploitation. We might well consider whether we too measure ourselves in terms of how much wealth we have, what we call our ‘standard of living’; it is not how God measures us, and he does not overlook the exploitation involved. Over 90% of the world’s goods are transported by sea, and much of the affluence we enjoy is on the backs of forced labour.

At the moment it seems inconceivable that this present world should meet a sudden, violent end. Although as individuals we are mortal, we think that our way of life will continue forever, and identifying with the species, we take some comfort from the thought. Our civilisation encompasses the whole earth; even China is part of it; and the merchants of the earth have grown rich by its trade. They invest in the real estate of London, New York and Berlin, they buy up football clubs, they educate their children in the West’s schools and universities.

Founded by the twelve apostles, the Church considered herself to be validated by Israel’s prophets (Eph 2:20), for as Peter told the Jews (Acts 3:24f), “All the prophets, from Samuel onward, when they spoke, also proclaimed these days.” In a broader sense (e.g. 18:24, 19:10; I Cor 12:28), there are still ‘apostles and prophets’ (Eph 4:11f). Paul discusses the gift of prophecy at some length (I Cor 14). The gift has since passed away, because the gospel of the kingdom of God is itself a prophetic message. A prophet today is anyone who enunciates that message, and inasmuch as he is ‘sent’ (Gk: apostellein, Latin: mittere), he is also an apostle, a missionary. Together with the saints, apostles and prophets are invited to rejoice because, although man has continually resisted the kingship of God, the time foreseen by Moses has come (Deut 32:43):
Rejoice with him, O heavens;
      bow down to him, all you gods,
for he avenges the blood of his children
      and takes vengeance on his adversaries.
He repays those who hate him
      and atones for his people and land.
Then a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone and threw it into the sea, saying,
“Thus with violence will Babylon the great city be thrown down
      and be found no more;
and the sound of lyre-players and singers and pipers and trumpeters
      will be heard in you no more,
and no craftsman of any craft
      will be found in you any more,
and the sound of the mill
      will be heard in you no more,
and the light of a lamp
      will shine in you no more,
and the voice of bridegroom and bride
      will be heard in you no more.
For your merchants were the great ones of the earth,
      and all nations were deceived by your sorcery.
And in her was found the blood of prophets and saints,
      and of all the slaughtered on the earth.”
The dirge is adapted from Jeremiah’s pronouncement of doom upon Judah and surrounding nations (Jer 7:34, 25:8-10). The people of Judah said to themselves, “He will not do anything. Disaster will not come upon us; we shall not see sword and famine.” Just as Jerusalem fell, so will the civilisation built on Christian foundations.

In summary, Babylon the Great is likened to three archetypal cities: Babylon, on account of its idolatry, Tyre, on account of its pride in its ability to generate wealth, and Jerusalem, on account of its adultery.

As depicted in Isaiah’s mini apocalypse, the whole planet is depopulate and desolate (Isa 24:7-13, 26:21f). The few remaining inhabitants of the earth are scorched; all merry-making has ceased.
For thus will it be in the midst of the earth
      among the nations,
as when an olive tree is beaten,
      as at the gleaning when the grape harvest is done. …
Come, my people, enter your chambers,
      and shut your doors behind you;
hide yourselves for a little while
      until the fury has passed by.
For behold, the Lord is coming out from his place
      to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity,
and the earth will disclose the blood shed on it,
      and will no more cover its slain.
Murder is the undoing of God’s purpose in bringing a human soul into being. After the murder of Abel, God said to Cain, “What have you done? The voice of your brother’s blood is crying to me from the ground.” By the time of Noah, the whole earth was filled with violence. As when Jerusalem was torn down by the Romans (Matt 23:35), it would seem that at the end of this age vengeance, deferred up to now, will be exacted for all the righteous blood shed on the earth, not only in the last generation.

The blood of prophets and saints includes that of the early Church from Nero to Diocletian, the blood of the saints who gave up their lives in the conversion of Europe, the blood of Protestant reformers such as Jan Hus and William Tyndale, the blood of the Huguenots, the blood of Jews massacred in 1648–1656 and 1919 in the Ukraine, and the blood of the 6 million Jews murdered during the Second World War, in Poland, the Baltic States, Germany, Austria, Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia, Croatia, Greece, the Netherlands, Hungary, Byelorussia, Ukraine, Belgium, Yugoslavia, Romania, France, Bulgaria, Italy and Russia. Only God has a full account.

‘All the slaughtered of the earth’ includes the millions of Greek, Assyrian and Armenian civilians massacred by the Ottomans during and after the First World War, the more than 15 million killed by Communists in the Soviet Union, and the untold millions killed by Communists in China and Cambodia, to say nothing of armed conflicts between countries. Founded by Karl Marx and supported by the ideas of Charles Darwin, Communism was an ideology generated in western Europe.

The slaughtered also include the unregarded innocents killed in the womb. Fornication gives rise to babies, and the babies are not always wanted. As in pre-Christian societies, modern society in such circumstances claims the right to kill. One in five pregnancies worldwide and almost one in three in Europe end in abortion (Sedgh et al. 2008), amounting to more than 40 million deaths each year. Hospitals cremate or simply incinerate the bodies. One of the gravest charges brought against Jerusalem was that “you took your sons and your daughters, whom you had borne to me [Yahweh], and these you sacrificed [to the idols] to be eaten. Was your whoring so small a matter that you slaughtered my children and gave them to the fire for them?” (Ezek 16:20f) Psalm 106 confirms that in doing so they sacrificed to demons.

After this I heard what seemed like the loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, “Hallelujah! The salvation and the glory and the power of our God! For his judgments are true and just; for he has judged the great prostitute who corrupted the earth with her fornication, and avenged on her the blood of his servants.” And a second time they cried, “Hallelujah! The smoke from her goes up forever and ever.”
And the twenty-four elders and the four living beings fell down and worshipped God who was seated on the throne, saying, “Amen. Hallelujah!” And from the throne came a voice, saying, “Praise our God, all you his servants, and you who fear him, small and great.”

The rejoicing is a reprise (inclusio) of the song at 15:3f, rounding off this revelation of the seven last plagues.