Revelation 15-16. The wrath of God is poured out on the world, culminating in the great Day of the Lord.
The first judgements to be designated plagues are the fire, smoke and sulphur associated with the sixth trumpet. The last plagues bring the total up to ten, as in the Exodus, and they are evidently sequential. While the judgements of the earlier trumpets also express God’s anger and are severe enough to be regarded as plagues, these last ten are worse.
Now the earth will be cleansed through fire. ‘From’ (ek) feels a little awkward without ‘having come’ before it, but the sense is ‘those who have come out of the great tribulation’ (Rev 7:14, cf. 16:13). Wrath is about to fall on the earth, but the saints are now in heaven.
There are two songs of Moses in the Pentateuch: one in which he celebrated Yahweh’s triumph over Egypt in the Exodus (Ex 15) and one in which, just before they were to enter the Promised Land, he foretold Israel’s prosperity, unfaithfulness and exile (Deut 32). The former song is in mind. As God’s representative (Ex 7:1), Moses brought misery on a country that had made Israel’s life a misery. That judgement foreshadowed the final judgement. Like Moses (so described immediately before his song, Ex 14:31), the Lamb was ‘the servant of God’ (Isa 53:7, Mark 10:45), and he will bring down judgement on the whole world. Those who have conquered the beast-Pharaoh through the power of the Lamb sing their new song (of which perhaps we are given only an excerpt) from their position after death on the other side of the Red Sea. It is from there that they observe God’s judgement of his enemies.
Some of the words come from Jeremiah 10, where it is emphasised that because God created the heavens and the earth, it is folly to worship idols. The redeemed in heaven rejoice, first-fruits and main harvest alike, and amplify the sound with lyres (citharas – also 5:8, 14:2). It is an interim state, for when Christ returns, they will return, and then every knee will bow before Almighty God (Ps 22:27, 65:2, 86:9, Isa 2:3, 45:23, 66:23, Jer 16:19, Zeph 2:11). He is the king of the nations. Once they understand that, they cannot but fear him and glorify him.
The vision connects with end of chapter 11, where the temple in heaven opens and the ark of the covenant is seen within it. Jerusalem’s Temple (naos, sanctuary) was built according to the same God-given pattern as the Mosaic Tabernacle, and in heaven they are one and the same. The ‘Tabernacle’ was the dwelling-place (Heb. mishkan) in which God chose to dwell before the first temple was built. It consisted of a tent (Heb. ohel), an itinerant shelter clothed with skins. The Tabernacle was the ‘tent of the testimony’ (Nu 9:15) because it contained the shining lamps (symbolising the Law), the bread of the presence (his presence) and ‘the ark of the testimony’, and the ark enshrined the tablet inscribed with the ten commandments, a witness to God’s covenant with Israel. In due time, God extended that witness from Israel to the whole world. Christ the Word ‘became flesh and tabernacled amongst us’ (John 1:14). His body was the sanctuary of God’s presence (John 2:21), and after his ascension those who participated in his flesh and blood continued his witness, eventually to the ends of the earth.
The angels are similar in appearance to the ‘one like a son of man’ seen at the beginning. Golden bowls once held the prayers of the saints (5:8), but now they hold God’s anger. The temple is shut behind the angels. As on the day Christ was crucified, his eye will not spare and he will show no pity.
‘Anger’ is thumos, a word with an older meaning of ‘emotion’ or ‘passion’, distinct from orge, ‘wrath’. In 14:10 and 16:19 it is translated ‘rage’. We have emotions because we are made in God’s likeness, and he has emotions. But uncontrolled anger is rarely good, and we should not give way to it (Eph 4:31, Col 3:8). God himself continually exercises makrothumia, ‘patience’ (Rom 2:4), for he does not will that anyone should perish but that they should repent (II Pet 3:9). Were it not for that patience, we should have died the moment we became acquainted with good and evil. Judgement is deferred to the end of life and to the end of the age. “I did not come to judge the world, but to save the world” (John 12:48). But ultimately judgement must come. Thus, in Paul’s letter to the Romans the ‘wrath’ of God especially refers to the ‘day of wrath’ when God reveals his righteous judgement, and when ‘anger and wrath’ are the fate of those who do not obey the truth but unrighteousness (Rom 2:5-8). In this sense it equates with death, the termination of life, which is the consequence of sin. ‘Being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved by him from wrath’ (Rom 5:9). A temporal ruler who orders capital punishment stands in the place of God and exacts his wrath (Rom 13:4). By nature we are children of disobedience (Eph 5:6, Col 3:6) and therefore children of wrath (Eph 2:3), because in Adam all die (Rom 5:19, I Cor 15:22). ‘All our days pass away under your wrath’ (Ps 90:9). But the first death is not the end. Although we must all die, whoever trusts in Christ will rise to eternal life. The general resurrection at the end of the thousand years is of those who are not in Christ, but in Adam. Judged according to their deeds, many (but not all) will be condemned and their sentence of death confirmed. Ultimately that is the wrath of God.
By this stage the reader will have noticed that the three series of sevens – seven seals, seven trumpets, seven bowls of wrath – all have the structure 4 + 2 + 1. The seven days of creation have the same structure. During the first four days God formed the environments of the earth, during the fifth and sixth he created the animals to live in them, and on the seventh he rested. The three sevens in Revelation describe the undoing of creation. This beautiful world! Will God really destroy what he has made?
|Seven days of creation||Seven seals||Seven trumpets||Seven bowls of wrath|
|1-4||Light, waters, earth, sun||Four horsemen||Earth, sea, water, sun||Earth, sea, water, sun|
|5||Animals of air & water||Persecution||Demonic locusts torment||Pains and sores torment|
|6||Land animals||Day of vengeance||Demonic horses kill||Armageddon|
|7||Sabbath||Silence||Redemption||Fall of Babylon|
The call was to ‘worship him who made the heaven and the land and sea and springs of water’ (14:7). With the seeing eye and the hearing ear man enjoys all that God has created for him but shows no gratitude, refusing even to acknowledge him. Now he learns that these things cannot be taken for granted. One by one the bowls of wrath are poured on these same parts of the created world, beginning with the land.
In the sixth plague of the Exodus, the boils that broke out on people’s skin were caused by a fine air-borne dust. The angel’s pouring of the bowl onto the land, evidently from above, also indicates a physical cause. Most probably this is a rise in X-ray and ultraviolet radiation resulting from the weakening or collapse of the planet’s magnetic shield, the effects exacerbated by extreme heat. The plague is part of the torment referred to in 14:10f.
An animal is a being that has the breath or spirit of life (Gen 1:21, 30); ‘living soul’ is pleonastic, for a soul is necessarily living. The judgement of the second trumpet was restricted to a third of the ocean; now the whole ocean is affected, filled with the blood of animals.
Again, in the catastrophe of the third trumpet, only a third of the rivers became polluted. By implication, the judgement now is total, global. “I make the rivers a desert; their fish stink for lack of water and die of thirst. I clothe the heavens with blackness and make sackcloth their covering” (Isa 50:2f).
Outside of grace, God’s concept of justice is not fundamentally different from man’s. “As you have done, so shall it be done to you; your deeds shall return on your own head” (Obad 15). “Because you have forsaken the Lord, he has forsaken you” (II Chron 24:20). “By the judgement you judge by, you will be judged, and with the measure you measure with, it will be measured back to you” (Matt 7:2). The beast and his associates poured out the blood of the saints and the 144,000 prophets; now God pours out his anger on them by giving them blood to drink. From the altar the long-suffering martyrs voice their approval (6:9). ‘Worthy’ is an ironical echo of 5:9.
Spiritually, the only-begotten Son of God is the light of the world; whoever follows him will not walk in darkness but have the light of life (John 8:12). Physically, the sun is the light of the world. Without it there would be no photosynthesis – no oxygen, no food. The sun rises on the evil and the good alike, and life depends entirely on it. Jesus Christ existed before the world, and everything that was made was made through him. The visible world was therefore made so as to reflect the invisible.
The sun is no longer beneficent. Previously only implied (8:7), it is now explicitly the source of the fire, as it spews forth superhot plasma. The atmosphere heats up, and wild fires become common. People are aware, however, that the ultimate cause is God. The angel of the waters does not address God as ‘he who is to come’ because he has come, with the seventh trumpet (11:17), and those on earth know it. Unlike innocently suffering Job, they curse God. They do not heed the call to ascribe glory to him who is holy, they do not acknowledge their failure to be like him. Fire purifies, or it destroys.
Clouds envelop the Earth. The sun becomes black as sackcloth. God seems utterly remote.
The scorching heat dries up many rivers, including the Euphrates. The false prophet is the ‘beast with two horns like a lamb’ (13:11). Preceded by portentous darkness, the great day is the ‘Day of the Lord’ foreseen by the prophets (e.g. Isa 13:1-16, 24:21f, Joel 2:31, Zeph 3:8, Mal 4:5), the end-time equivalent of the ‘day of vengeance’ – lasting some years – which Yahweh visited upon Egypt, Philistia, Tyre, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Syria, Arabia, Elam and eventually Babylon itself, having previously put an end to the kingdom of Israel (Jer 46-51, Ezek 25-32, Zeph 2). Those countries were the ‘whole world’ at that time. Their descendants are, presumably, the ‘whole world’ whose leaders are persuaded by supernatural signs to gather at the tell (ancient settlement mound) of Megiddo. Although Megiddo is where they gather, this is not necessarily where the final battle will take place. Other texts indicate it will be at Jerusalem.
The interjection – “Behold, I am coming like a thief!” – recapitulates warnings given to the churches at Sardis and Laodicea, apposite here because it is the Day of the Lord that comes like a thief (I Thes 5:2, II Pet 3:10). The interruption is as unexpected as the event itself. The day has a double reference, for it is also the moment when the Lord comes for his own, to harvest the wheat rather than burn the tares: “Be vigilant, for you do not know at what hour your Lord is coming. Know this, that if the master of the house had known at what time of night the thief was coming, he would have been vigilant and not let his house be broken into” (Matt 24:42f). So it is either the day of rapture or the subsequent day of wrath; of light or of darkness (I Thes 5:5). Jesus exhorts us to make sure we do not get left behind.
Lightning, noises and thunder – effects of the solar wind interfering with the Earth’s magnetic field – have been going on in the background since the first trumpet, but with this last bowl, poured on the air, they intensify. The earthquake is the same as that at the opening of the sixth seal. Generally, earthquakes occur when tension is released between two tectonic plates. Most originate near the surface of the Earth, all are local, and the shallower their origin, the greater the damage. A global earthquake could only be triggered by something much deeper, most probably an acceleration of movements in the liquid outer core of the planet – the same kind of movements as generate its magnetic field. It may be relevant that in the last thirty years the rate at which magnetic north has shifted across Earth’s surface has accelerated from 15 km to 55 km per year. Over the last twenty years, movement in the core has accelerated more than threefold (Livermore et al. 2019).
People see the mountains and every tall building crumbling in the earthquake, and cry to the rocks as they fall, “Fall on us, and hide us from the wrath of God!” (Rev 6:16). The heavens also shudder (Joel 3:16, Hag 2:6). Meteoroids fall on the earth like hail, like figs shaken from a tree (conglomerations of ice do not exceed two pounds in weight).
The anger of God is done. The following chapters (17-19) portray ‘Babylon the Great’ in more detail, uttering a lament for her fall and contrasting the fate of those deceived by the beast and his prophet – now mere carrion – with those in heaven about to celebrate the marriage feast of the Lamb.