Revelation chapter 13: the rise of a new caliphate
The first beast rises out of the sea, the second out of the earth. In other passages (10:5f, 12:2) sea and earth are coupled, so the distinction may not be significant; the point is that they come from below, not above. The imagery evokes Daniel’s vision of four ferocious beasts that come up from the sea and earth (Dan 7:2, 17). There they are said to stand for kings, although the last one is said to be a kingdom out of which ten kings arise and then an eleventh. The first is like a lion, standing for Nebuchadrezzar, the second like a bear, standing for Cyrus, and the third like a leopard, standing for Alexander. There then follows an interval in which Daniel sees nocturnal visions, culminating in a fourth beast that is ‘different from all the kingdoms’ and not likened to any known beast of prey.
The ‘seven mountains’ can hardly be other than the seven hills of Rome. In the absence of the woman, they represent seven kings or kingdoms. The only clue to their identity is that the sixth is contemporary with John and the seventh lies in the future, the eighth being part of the seventh. From the perspective of nineteen centuries later, the reference must be to kingdoms (empires) rather than kings, since there have been numerous kings since John’s time. The sixth is therefore the Roman empire. Given that all prophecy is centred on God’s chosen people and the promised land, the seventh must be the Muslim empires that controlled Jerusalem after the Romans, from AD 637 to 1917. Within a generation of Mohammed’s death, himself a great warrior, Muslims had conquered the same territory as that occupied by the Seleucid and Ptolemaic parts of Alexander’s empire, plus all of Arabia. Collectively, these caliphates were different from any previous empire because their desire for world domination was inspired by their religion rather than personal or national ambition, and that religion was monotheistic; with prophetic authority it taught that all the Earth should be brought by force under the rule of Allah, the god that had no son.
The beast in Revelation expresses the attributes particularly of its seventh head, which appears to have undergone a previous death, corresponding to the defeat of the Ottoman Empire – the last caliphate – in the First World War and its dismemberment under the Treaty of Sèvres. The rise of another caliphate in the future represents the healing of this death blow.
The beast is also the man at the head of this caliphate. Hence it may be that he too is reported dead and subsequently found to be alive. The ten horns – horns in apocalyptic imagery represent individuals – are the ten leaders making up the alliance. Daniel indicates that their head will arise after the other ten and put down three of them (7:24); he does not at first have a territory of his own. In a later passage he is called ‘the king of the north’ (Dan 11:40), the end-time counterpart of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV, who desecrated Jerusalem’s temple, slaughtered tens of thousands of Jews, and ruled broadly the same territory as that represented by the leopard, lion and bear (Turkey, Syria-Palestine, Iraq and Iran). The three that are subjugated appear to be Egypt, Libya and Sudan (Dan 11:43).
The dragon is Satan, as we have seen in chapter 12. He is pictured there similarly, with seven heads and ten horns, but that the diadems diadems of the beast crown its heads rather than its horns, because the kings so represented have not yet come to existence (Rev 17:12). If a man’s thoughts and desires align with his, Satan is quite capable of possessing him (John 13:27). So the individual beast and the Devil are virtually identical, and the whole earth marvels at the beast. Europe and the United States – the powers that dictated terms at the end of the First World War – have neither the will nor the ability to interfere, for their economies have been ruined by drought, famine and flooding (Rev 8:6-11).
Many readers have been misled into thinking that Jerusalem’s Temple will have been rebuilt by this time, but the temple referred to, as always in Revelation, is the dwelling place of God in heaven. In some places it is a metaphor for the body of Christ, i.e. all believers, comprising one body filled with his spirit (John 2:21, I Cor 3:16f, I Pet 2:5). Here John uses the word ‘tabernacle’ or ‘tent’, since those who dwell in heaven do so temporarily: they ‘camp’ or sojourn in it, until such time as Christ with his saints returns and ‘the dwelling place [tabernacle] of God is with man’ on earth (Rev 21:2-3).
To the modern reader ‘every tribe and people and language and nation’, like ‘all who dwell on earth’, appears to indicate the whole world as we know it now. However, in related contexts the phrase means every people group within the empire, as in Daniel 2:38, 3:4, 6:25, 7:23. The idea that Revelation foresees a ‘world government’ should be rejected.
‘The foundation of the world’ is the creation of the habitable world in six days, as Hebrews makes clear when it says that ‘his works were finished’ from that time (4:3). Some translations make the phrase ‘before the foundation of the world’ refer to the writing of one’s name in the book of life. The word order does not support this. Strange though the notion may seem, John says that the Lamb was slain ‘before the foundation of the world’ – i.e. his sacrifice was part of God’s plan from the beginning (Gen 3:15, Matt 25:34), and its actualisation at the end of the ages had effect back to the beginning (I Pet 3:18-20). Similarly, God chose us in him, predestined us for adoption as sons, ‘before the foundation of the world’ (Eph 1:4).
The Jews in the land will be taken captive (Isa 49:21, 52:2, Jer 30:6-8, Ezek 34:27, Joel 3:1-3, Zech 14:2), and they must try to accept it, in the knowledge that it will be very temporary. Resistance will do no good. Some will be killed.
If the first beast represents the military and political power of the caliphate, the second beast represents its religious power. It has two horns, possibly leaders of the two main branches of Islam, Sunni and Shia – thus, a Grand Imam and a Grand Ayatollah. They promote worship of the caliph as ‘the Mahdi’, the one expected to bring justice on earth before the Day of Judgement. The New Testament takes a different view. In Paul’s words, ‘The coming of the lawless one is by the activity of Satan, with all power and false signs and wonders, and with all wicked deception for those who are perishing, because they refused to love the truth and so be saved’ (II Thes 2:9-10). “False christs and false prophets will arise and perform great signs and wonders, so as to lead astray, if possible, even the elect” (Matt 24:24).
The preaching of the two witnesses during the same three and a half years is therefore not in a spiritual vacuum. The witnesses have power as great as that given to Elijah and Moses, including therefore Elijah’s power to call down fire from heaven (I Ki 18:38, II Ki 1). But their counterparts have similar power, just as the sorcerers of Egypt were able to duplicate the plagues called down by Moses (e.g. Ex 7:11). As always, people must choose, and many will be deceived by their signs. Then comes a flagrant contravention of the second commandment. Just as Nebuchadrezzar required ‘all peoples, nations and languages’ to bow down and worship a golden image, on pain of death, so now will this latter-day potentate. The image is even endowed with breath – in contrast to the lifeless blocks of metal, wood and stone that men are accustomed to worship (Rev 9:20, Hab 2:19). Satan’s activity is truly supernatural. He wants all people to worship him, and they do that, ultimately, by abasing themselves before a visible image. Most Jews, one may suppose, will not bow down, even though death is the consequence. Even some Muslims will not, for their religion also forbids idol worship.
In 167 BC Antiochus caused desolation in Jerusalem by erecting an altar and/or image of Zeus in the Temple. The image erected for the beast, presumably on the Temple Mount, is the equivalent abomination at the time of the end. It is a sign of impending tribulation: “But when you see the abomination of desolation standing where it ought not to be, then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. … For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world.” (Matt 24:15, 21) The abomination comes, therefore, near the end of the 1260 days, which end with the killing of the two witnesses in Jerusalem and the 144,000 witnesses in the rest of the world. When John next looks, the 144,000 are on Mount Zion in heaven, redeemed from mankind as first-fruits of the harvest about to come.
His words are more precious than gold. If parents do not pass the truth of a living faith to their children, their children will fall away.