Revelation chapter 7. Where are the 12 tribes of Israel today? Why are 144,000 called out from them? And what is the meaning of the great multitude that is now seen before the throne?
12,000 from the tribe of Reuben,
12,000 from the tribe of Gad,
12,000 from the tribe of Asher,
12,000 from the tribe of Naphtali,
12,000 from the tribe of Manasseh,
12,000 from the tribe of Simeon,
12,000 from the tribe of Levi,
12,000 from the tribe of Issachar,
12,000 from the tribe of Zebulun,
12,000 from the tribe of Joseph,
12,000 from the tribe of Benjamin sealed.
The first and last-named tribes, Judah and Benjamin, also Simeon and part of Levi, survive to the present day. They are the Jews, a collective term derived from the name of the territory, Judah or Judaea. They descend from the people who lived in the kingdom of Judah before the Babylonian Exile, i.e. before 586 BC. After the Exile some of them returned to the land; some remained in Babylonia and subsequently spread to other parts of the Near East, where they retained their identity (Esther 3:8, I Pet 1:1). After the first and second revolts against the Romans, those in Judaea were nearly all exiled. Although some today can reasonably claim to descend from the tribe of Levi, genealogies going back to specific tribes are now lost. It is remarkable that the Jews retain their identity at all, considering the persecution they have suffered.Over the past 100 years many have migrated and settled in the land. Nonetheless, more Jews still live in other parts of the world – chiefly the United States – than in Palestine itself.
In stark contrast, the non-Jewish tribes have long ceased to exist as ethnic entities. In 930 BC they broke away from Judah and Benjamin and formed a separate kingdom called Israel, distinct from Judah. Israel in this sense continued until the Assyrians conquered it in 721 BC. ‘In the ninth year of Hoshea [king of Israel], the king of Assyria captured Samaria [Hoshea’s capital]. He carried Israel away into Assyria and placed them in Halah [N Iraq], in Gozan on the Habor river [NE Syria] and in the cities of the Medes [NW Iran]’ (II Ki 17:6). In their stead the Assyrians brought in people from other parts of the empire to populate the cities. A few Israelites, notably from the tribes of Asher, Issachar, Ephraim, Manasseh and Zebulun, escaped deportation (II Chron 30); they became known as Samaritans. Others fled to the southern kingdom and became part of Judah. For example, the Anna who recognised the baby Jesus as the Messiah when he was presented at the Temple belonged to the tribe of Asher. But most of these tribes had long since merged with the Gentiles. James’s reference in his letter to ‘the twelve tribes in the Dispersion’, like Paul’s in Acts (26:7), was largely notional.
‘Israel’ in the prophecies can refer either to the whole nation of Israel (even Judah where Judah is seen as representing Israel as a whole) or to the northern kingdom of Israel distinct from the southern kingdom; usually the context makes clear which. In Ezekiel’s vision of the valley of dry bones, about 150 years after the Assyrian deportation of the northern tribes and 11 years into the Babylonian deportation of the southern tribes, God said, “These bones are the whole house of Israel.” He promised that he would raise the whole nation from their graves and place them in their own land. ‘Judah and the children of Israel associated with him’ would be re-united with ‘Joseph and all the house of Israel associated with him’. They would no longer be estranged, but one king would be king over both.
God had banished the northern tribes from the promised land because they did not want to be set apart as God’s own people, distinct from the nations around them (II Ki 17:15). To abandon the true God was necessarily to lose their identity, and that is what happened. No prophets followed them into exile, and there is no evidence that the tribes ever came back to their senses. On the other hand, the people raised from the dead in Ezekiel’s vision are distinguishable as descendants of Israel. They must therefore be the northern tribes before they lost their identity.
So why did God treat Judah differently from the northern kingdom? And if he still had a purpose for the Jews in bringing them back to the land in 536 BC, why did he apparently have no further purpose for the tribes who did not come back?
Although not free of ambiguity, the sense is that spiritual blindness has affected part of Israel, not that partial spiritual blindness has affected all Israel. There is an ordained period when the Jews must be ‘enemies of God for your sake’. But when the harvest of Gentile souls is complete, the blindness will be lifted and then ‘the rest of Israel’ will be saved, i.e. the Jews.
It is after their resurrection that the children of Israel, once dispersed, will return to their land. They will seek the Lord God their coming Messiah and David their former king, whom God will also raise up for them (Jer 30:9). They are not so populous that they cannot be numbered. Rather, “I will set them in their land and multiply them” (Ezek 37:26); “I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man and the seed of beast” (Jer 31:27). The borders of the land allocated for each of the twelve tribes are set out in Ezekiel 47-48.
So the 144,000 who are ‘sealed from every tribe of the sons of Israel’ are disciples living in the countries into which, in the centuries after the Assyrian and Babylonian deportations, the northern tribes migrated. The countries, one supposes, are those of Europe, for it was to Europe primarily that the gospel went. Nonetheless, since Gentile believers are grafted into the olive tree that is Israel and share in its root (Rom 11:17), and since they are part of the new Jerusalem whose gates bear the names of the twelve tribes (Rev 21), ‘Israel’ here must have a still wider sense. Previously we Gentiles were alienated from the polity of Israel (Eph 2:12); now, being reconciled to God, we are citizens of Israel alongside the saints and household of God (Eph 2:19).
There is no further specific mention of the four angels, or of great winds ravaging earth and sea, but presumably they are the angels that blow the first four trumpets. When the fifth trumpet sounds, the demonic locusts that rise from the abyss are told not to harm the grass or the trees (what remains of them) but only human beings who do not have the seal of God on their foreheads; the protection of the 144,000 is re-affirmed. They are not harmed, because their role is to prophesy of the one who is to come: “Fear God and give him glory, because the hour of his judgement has come. Worship him who made the heaven and the earth and sea and springs of water.” Like the seventy that Jesus sent ahead of him into every city and town, they will heal the sick, preach a message of repentance, and tell the people, “The kingdom of God has come near to you.”
As in Gideon’s day (Ju 7:3-6), and Elijah’s day (I Ki 19:18), their number is relatively small. Not everyone in the tribes is chosen – they are chosen ‘from’ the tribes. Not everyone who has been sealed with the Holy Spirit (II Cor 1:22, Eph 1:13) receives the seal that keeps him from harm. Certainly those who fear man rather than God, who do not believe that his judgement is near, and who do not worship God as the one who created heaven and earth will not be among those sealed. Nor will those who do not sigh and groan at the abominations now being committed in the city (Ezek 9:4) and who are not themselves sexually pure.
Clothed, like Gideon, with the Spirit of God, and like the apostles at Pentecost who prophesied to the Jews before their day of wrath, they will sound the trumpet (Jud 6:34, Luke 3:7, Luke 24:49, Rom 2:10). The 144,000 (including 12,000 from the tribe of Judah) will prophesy to the rest of the world (including the Jewish Diaspora) at the same time as the two witnesses in Jerusalem prophesy to the Jews, for it is during the trumpets that the latter bear witness. After three and a half years of prophecy they will all be martyred.
‘This gospel of the kingdom will be proclaimed throughout the world, as a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come’ (Matt 24:14). Christians have been sharing the gospel with the nations beyond Europe for more than two centuries, but there will be one final push, made more urgent by signs of the end and intensifying persecution. In response a multitude no one can number will believe. Before God made his covenant with them, the Israelites washed their garments in water (Ex 19:10). In a spiritual sense the Gentiles will wash their dirty clothing in the blood of the Lamb, and the blood will make them white. That is enough to gain them access to the throne.
An elder provides the explanation for what John sees, for in due time they will join the elders. The tenses are significant: the cleansing of their souls in the blood of the Lamb occurred in the past, their emergence from the great tribulation and their service in the inner temple (naos) are present continuous, and the time when they will suffer no more is future. Serving is the function of a servant/slave, whether in relation to man or God. It is what we are called to do here on earth (Matt 4:10, Col 3:23), day and night (cf. Luke 2:37, I Tim 5:5), and spiritually this takes place in his temple (Rom 12:1, Eph 2:6, Heb 4:16); indeed, we are his temple (Eph 2:21, I Pet 2:5). There is no work to be done in heaven.
Chronologically, the vision of the 144,000 and the great multitude relates to the period of the seven trumpets, before the wrath of God. It thus steps out of the sequence of the six seals that culminates with the wrath. The promise of an end to suffering with which the vision culminates connects with the point later in the narrative when that promise is fulfilled (Rev 21), equivalent to the opening of the seventh seal. The silence for half an hour marks the transition to the trumpets.